BUENOS AIRES, SEPT. 16 -- President Raul Alfonsin swore in a new Cabinet today in an overhaul prompted by the defeat of the ruling Radical Civic Union party in midterm elections.

The most controversial member, Economy Minister Juan Sourrouille, remained, as did Foreign Minister Dante Caputo and Defense Minister Horacio Jaunarena.

The two most important changes were the naming of Enrique Nosiglia to interior and Ideler Tonelli to labor. Nosiglia, the chairman of the Radicals in the federal capital, replaces Interior Minister Antonio Troccoli, who once led the party bloc in the Chamber of Deputies.

Nosiglia is considered a powerful operator and open to new ideas, but some party members are resentful of his brash tactics.

Tonelli, former secretary of justice, replaces Labor Minister Carlos Alderete, the only Peronist in the Cabinet. Alderete embarrassed Alfonsin shortly before the election by criticizing Sourrouille and announcing that he would refuse to declare any strike illegal at a time when major public services, railroads, universities and the telephone system were idled by walkouts.

In a newspaper interview, Peronist leader Jose Luis Manzano, chief of the opposition bloc in the Chamber of Deputies, called the new Cabinet "a slap in the face to the opinion of the citizens." Luis Leon, a Radical Party senator from Chaco Province, said in a radio address that he, too, had "some doubts about it."

In other Cabinet changes, Rodolfo Terragno replaced Pedro Trucco as minister of public works, and Jorge Sabato moved to the education post. Ricardo Barrio Arrechea, the defeated candidate for governor for Missiones Province, takes over the post of health minister from Conrado Storani.