President Reagan, faced with polls showing increasing opposition from the public to his Supreme Court nominee Robert H. Bork, yesterday accused Bork's critics of being so "ideologically inspired" that they have lost sight of the judicial mainstream that he said Bork occupies.

Speaking in Arlington to a convention of 1,500 cheering conservative women {Story, Page C1}, the president said Bork's televised testimony before the Senate Judiciary Committee had persuaded the public that Bork was not the ideologue his opponents had portrayed.

The president did not directly comment on polls published this week by The Washington Post, The New York Times and The Wall Street Journal that show opposition to Bork has grown since he appeared before the Senate Judiciary panel.

But Reagan told the women's group that "if people want a measure of how the American public feels" they should look at the petitions bearing a reported 72,000 names that the convervative group had presented to Congress this week.

Later as he greeted King Juan Carlos and Queen Sofia of Spain for a luncheon at the White House, the president told reporters he is not troubled by the polls and is paying attention to "the only one that counts" -- the Senate, which must decide whether to confirm the Bork nomination.

The Senate Judiciary Committee, meanwhile, completed its ninth day of hearings on Bork's nomination with testimony from seven academics and lawyers opposed to Bork, and the first black to speak before the committee in his behalf.

In his speech to the convention of the Concerned Women for America, Reagan repeated his prediction that Bork will be confirmed and "will go down in history as one of the finest Supreme Court justices our nation has ever known."

Reagan could hardly have picked a more receptive audience. His 20-minute address was interrupted 43 times by sustained applause and laughter, prompting him to twice remark, "I'm preaching to the choir."

While Reagan was saying that attacks on Bork have been made by critics "who are themselves so far outside the mainstream that they've long ago . . . lost sight of the moderate center," presidential spokesman Marlin Fitzwater was criticizing television ads financed by Bork opponents and featuring actor Gregory Peck.

"To say that Americans will lose these freedoms as these ads claim, is patently outrageous and deliberately untrue," Fitzwater said. "Gregory Peck ought to be ashamed." Reagan, as he greeted the Spanish monarchs, said Peck was "miscast" in them.

The 60-second television ads, part of a $2 million campaign by the People for the American Way, began running in the Washington area about three weeks ago and ended yesterday, a spokeswoman for the group said.

Testifying against Bork yesterday was a group of prominent lawyers including two former presidents of the American Bar Association.

"This is a political determination, but not a partisan one," said Robert Meserve of Boston, one of the former ABA presidents. "We have here a doctrinaire gentleman . . . I don't think we want a right-wing radical on that court," he said.

Sen. Orrin G. Hatch (R-Utah), a Bork supporter, responded that there is "no justification" for that label.

The panel of ABA leaders included another former ABA president, Chesterfield Smith of Lakeland, Fla., and Robert Kaufman, president of the New York Bar Association.

Robert Kaufman, president of the Bar Association of the City of New York, responded to a challenge from Republican senators on the panel that members of the association had "repudiated" Kaufman's involvement in the hearings by saying the 53 dissenters who had signed a letter to that effect were a minority in the association.

Thomas Sowell, an economist with the Hoover Institute in California and a prominent black conservative, criticized the "shrill propaganda" which had greeted Bork's nomination and said attacks on Bork were often "hysterical and dishonest."

When Sowell minimized Bork's apparent change in view while testifying before the committee, he drew a sharp rebuke from Sen. Arlen Specter (R-Pa.), one of the undecided committee members.

"I think Judge Bork has a perfect right to modify his position, but when you make representation on where he stands, I have a real question on how much you know about Judge Bork," Specter said.

A panel of female lawyers and legal academics, including Shirley Hufstedler, secretary of education in the Carter administration and a former federal judge, focused on what Hufstedler called Bork's "change of mind."

"I gravely question his ability to transform himself into a man of moderate views who will respect the opinions of others with whom he does not agree," Hufstedler said.

"I do not believe he will be able to abandon his continuing search for absolutes in favor of a search for tempered justice," she added.

The Judiciary Committee's hearings on Bork will resume Monday with more testimony from legal specialists.