White House officials said yesterday that they expect to reap "political benefits" from forcing a full Senate vote on the nomination of Judge Robert H. Bork to the Supreme Court, even if he is rejected.

President Reagan told reporters that "I am not going to withdraw the nomination" under any circumstances, and White House spokesman Marlin Fitzwater said, "There's political benefits down the road in the sense that we care deeply about this nomination, and should the issue ever come up again in any future campaign, everyone should know that we never backed off."

The spokesman also said that Reagan's determination to take the confirmation to a Senate vote, whatever the result, would let political opponents know "that we will not weaken, we will fight to the finish, and . . . we will not let anybody off the hook in either party."

Neither Reagan nor Fitzwater would concede defeat. But after previously uncommitted Sen. Howell Heflin (D-Ala.) voted against Bork yesterday in the Judiciary Committee, a White House official, who discussed the confirmation battle on condition he not be identified, said, "I just don't see how we can pull it out."

The official said that if Heflin had remained on the fence or supported Bork, the administration would have retained "an outside chance" of winning. Nonetheless, the official contended that it could be "strategically useful" to put all of the senators on record.

This assessment is based on the view that it will be more difficult for southern Democrats to reject Reagan's next Supreme Court nominee once they have voted against Bork. Some officials said this may be especially true if the nominee is a southerner.

While Reagan has insisted that no alternatives to Bork are being considered, Patrick E. Higginbotham, a conservative federal appeals court judge in Dallas who has the support of Sen. Lloyd Bentsen (D-Tex.), has been discussed as a possible nominee if Bork is defeated, officials said.

Some sources said that if Bork is defeated, the president might move quickly to send a new name to the Senate in the hope of forcing action on the nomination before the end of the year. But no sign of this backup strategy was reflected in any of the official statements from the White House yesterday.

Fitzwater said that four senators at a Republican congressional leadership meeting at the White House yesterday morning urged Reagan to take the nomination to a full vote and that none spoke against this position. Sen. Alan K. Simpson (R-Wyo.) identified himself as one of this group, telling reporters on the White House driveway that "there is a pool of about 13 {undeclared} senators out there who are scurrying for cover like South Dakota quail."

Simpson said he supported a vote of the full Senate because it would require every senator to stand up and be counted on the Bork nomination.

In addition to the strategic reasons offered for continuing the fight on Bork's confirmation in the face of almost certain defeat, a White House official said "there's simply no one around who wants to talk Reagan out of his position."

The official said that Attorney General Edwin Meese III supported the strategy and that White House chief of staff Howard H. Baker Jr., under fire from conservatives who think he has not pressed hard enough for Bork, "had no intention of standing in the way of what the president wants."

Reagan's latest appeal for Bork came during a picture-taking session yesterday morning, where he denounced Bork's opponents for having "made this a political contest by using tactics and distortions that I think are deplorable." The president refused to respond to a question from a reporter who observed that a number of Republican senators also came out against Bork.