A unanimous Senate yesterday demanded that the Soviet Union apologize for a "direct threat" to U.S. security in testing strategic weapons near Hawaii and accused China of "human rights violations" in its crackdown on pro-independence demonstrations in Tibet.

But, in a day of legislative globe-trotting that touched nearly every region of the world, it rejected, 61 to 34, a proposal from Sen. Jesse Helms (R-N.C.) to distance the United States from the socialist government of Mozambique. The proposal had been introduced just as Mozambican President Joaquim Chissano was being entertained by the Senate Foreign Relations Committee in a room directly below the Senate chamber.

The unusually strong condemnation of the Soviet missile tests came as conservative Republicans outmaneuvered Democratic leaders and won approval of their own language instead of a milder rebuke favored by the Democrats.

The nonbinding "sense of Congress" resolution charged that the Soviets appeared "to have been practicing . . . a strike on the United States" when they test-fired two ballistic missiles with dummy warheads over the Pacific last week. The tests were a "deliberate provocation" and probable violation of SALT II that "increased rather than decreased the risk of nuclear war," the resolution asserted.

The resolution put the Senate on record as "demand{ing} a public and immediate apology to the American people as well as assurances that tests this near U.S. territory will not occur in the future."

The tone of the resolution was in sharp contrast with arms control initiatives by the Senate last week to require U.S. compliance with weapons limits in the unratified SALT II pact and to restrict testing and development of the Reagan administration's space-based Strategic Defense Initiative, both of which were approved over objections from conservatives.

Conservatives failed early yesterday in a move to reverse the Senate's SALT II decision but proceeded to dominate debate over a State Department authorization bill for next year with several proposed amendments, including an effort to void the Panama Canal treaties, which was still pending last night.

In an attempt to sidetrack the GOP resolution on the Soviet tests, Foreign Relations Committee Chairman Claiborne Pell (D-R.I.) proposed an alternative that condemned the Soviet tests as "provocative, unnecessary and inconsistent with behavior designed to reduce the risk of nuclear war" and said the United States should demand an "immediate and comprehensive explanation" from the Soviets.

But Sen. Malcolm Wallop (R-Wyo.), chief sponsor of the conservatives' proposal, used a parliamentary maneuver that froze out Pell's counterproposal. The Democrats, apparently unable to defeat Wallop's proposal without an alternative of their own, decided to go along with the Wallop language, which passed, 96 to 0.

By contrast, the criticism of China took the form of a bipartisan proposal from Pell and Helms, who is the ranking Republican on the Foreign Relations Committee.

The Pell-Helms proposal, which passed by a vote of 98 to 0, took note of Chinese police attacks on Tibetan demonstrators, including women, children and Buddhist monks, and attempted to tie future defense-related sales to the Chinese to a restoration of human rights in Tibet.

The nonbinding language said any notification of sales to China under the Arms Export Control Act should be accompanied by a presidential certification that the Chinese government is "acting in good faith and in a timely manner to resolve human rights issues in Tibet."

It also called on President Reagan to meet with the Dalai Lama, Tibet's spiritual leader, and urged Secretary of State George P. Shultz to "call attention to the rights of the Tibetan people" as well as other minorities in China.

Senators condemned the Chinese in stronger terms in their debate than they did in the formal resolution. Pell, for example, accused China of the "rape of Tibet."

Administration officials said they expect vigorous protests from the Chinese. The Chinese earlier complained that foreign influences have contributed to the demonstrations in Tibet and sent diplomats to the State Department to protest that the United States permitted the Dalai Lama, during a recent trip here, to speak in ways that contributed to the ferment.

This spring a U.S. sale of up to $550 million in avionics for China's F8 warplane was approved after submission to Congress. No other major sales are expected soon, according to State Department officials.

The Helms proposal on Mozambique would have denied aid to the African nation unless the United States began to deal with antigovernment rebels in an attempt to negotiate an end to Mozambique's guerrilla war. In defeating the Mozambique proposal, the Senate also knocked out another Helms amendment to deny funds for establishment of an official Washington residence for the secretary of state.

Staff writer Don Oberdorfer contributed to this report.