The Reagan administration's year-long effort to appoint a university professor who once took part in a textbook censorship campaign to a federal humanities review panel has been permanently derailed in the Senate.

The Senate Labor and Human Resources Committee voted last Friday to recommend against Senate confirmation of Charles A. Moser to serve on the Council of the National Endowment for the Humanities, a panel that reviews grant applications for the national endowment.

Moser, a professor of Slavic languages at George Washington University who drew sharp attacks from liberal groups, conceded in an interview yesterday that the committee action effectively killed his nomination.

"I believe the decision was made not on professional grounds but political grounds," Moser said. "I think that's unfortunate for something like the National Council for the Humanities."

Last fall, while the Republicans still controlled the Senate, the committee tabled the controversial nomination because of intense opposition from the National Education Association, the National Humanities Alliance and People for the American Way, which contended that Moser was hostile to academic freedom and diversity in scholarship.

Sen. Edward M. Kennedy (D-Mass.), chairman of the committee since January, said through an aide yesterday that the three groups were decisive in defeating the nomination.

"He {Kennedy} took very seriously their concerns and could not support Moser," said Paul Donovan, a spokesman for the committee.

The groups also blocked Reagan's nomination last year of Anthony T. Bouscaren, a political science professor from Syracuse, to serve on the 26-member humanities council.

"We were very concerned that Moser was involved in the book banning in West Virginia in the 1970s," said Marsha N. Adler, legislative representative for People for the American Way. "He also is involved in a number of organizations that clearly would not make him fair-minded in his consideration of grants going forward for the National Endowment for the Humanities."

Moser was involved in a bitter 1974 battle over school textbooks in Kanawha County, W.Va. While a member of the conservative Heritage Foundation, Moser joined a Kanawha County parents' group in attempting to ban textbooks approved by the school board that they called "anti-Christian, anti-American, depressing and negative."

Some of the textbooks included selections written by black authors, including Gwendolyn Brooks, Dick Gregory, Eldridge Cleaver, Langston Hughes, James Baldwin and Malcolm X.

"I viewed it as a dispute over who should have the final say in controlling textbooks in public schools -- the parents or the educators," Moser said yesterday. "I think the parents should have the final say. The NEA thinks the professional educators should have it."

Moser is a director of Accuracy in Media, a conservative group that monitors the news media, and has publicly supported Accuracy in Academia, a group that monitors college courses for liberal bias.

He also is a director of the National Council for Better Education, which focuses on primary and secondary school curricula and has attacked the National Education Association as a "propaganda front for the radical left."

Moser said that his critics "virtually ignored my qualifications in the humanities" and unfairly characterized the groups with which he works.

"I make no apology for my connections with these organizations," he said.