The Senate Judiciary Committee announced yesterday that it will begin hearings Dec. 14 on the nomination of Judge Anthony M. Kennedy to the Supreme Court, rejecting pleas from liberal organizations for more time to study his record.

But Chairman Joseph R. Biden Jr. (D-Del.) said his committee will not vote on the nomination until after Congress reconvenes in late January, sending its recommendation to the Senate floor in time for final action by early February.

"We're really disappointed with the committee and with Sen. Biden," said Art Kropp, executive director of People for the American Way, which earlier this year ran newspaper and television advertisements opposing the unsuccessful nomination of Judge Robert H. Bork.

"These same people were arguing that there would be no rush to judgment on Bork and no rush to judgment on {Judge Douglas H.} Ginsburg," Kropp said. "All of a sudden we have a nominee that the process isn't really as important for; we don't need to take a long, thorough, fair, careful look. I don't understand that."

The committee's schedule was worked out in consultation with White House chief of staff Howard H. Baker Jr. and the ranking committee Republican, Sen. Strom Thurmond (S.C.), both of whom had urged that hearings be held this year.

Biden said the hearings could be completed before Congress adjourns for the year on a date that has not been set. If not, he said, they will be concluded after Congress' return, which is tentatively scheduled for Jan. 19.

Defending his decision to hold December hearings, Biden said the schedule will allow time for a "thorough" review while meeting a need for "reasonable" speed in filling the vacancy created by the retirement last June of Lewis F. Powell Jr.

Biden said he understands the concerns of civil rights groups, women's groups and others that have urged delay but asserted it is a "concern without foundation." He added, "They do not run the committee -- I do."

Among the groups complaining about the December start is the Leadership Conference on Civil Rights, which opposed Bork, President Reagan's first choice for the vacancy, but has not yet taken a position on Kennedy. Benjamin L. Hooks, chairman of the conference, and Ralph G. Neas, executive director, said the decision is "surprising and disappointing" and warned that "the chaotic atmosphere that characterizes the last few days" of a congressional session will not be conducive to full and fair hearings.

The 33-day period between Kennedy's nomination Nov. 11 and the start of the hearings Dec. 14 would be the shortest for any Supreme Court nomination during the Reagan administration. The committee waited 42 days to begin confirmations hearings last year for Chief Justice William H. Rehnquist, 49 days for Justice Antonin Scalia, 64 days for Justice Sandra Day O'Connor in 1981 and 67 days for Bork.

"I haven't spoken with anyone who has read and gone through {Kennedy's} 400 written opinions," Kropp said. "I don't know of anyone who is familiar with the 1,400 cases that he sat on." Based on what the group knows now, he said, it would not oppose the nomination.

Kennedy, a judge on the 9th U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals in Sacramento, was nominated by Reagan after the Senate rejected Bork 58 to 42 and Ginsburg withdrew after admitting that he had smoked marijuana as recently as 1979.

Biden earlier indicated he did not see how hearings could begin before January. But he has been under pressure from the White House and Republicans to start earlier, and the American Bar Association speeded up its review, indicating its assessment will be forwarded to the committee shortly after Thanksgiving. Senators' adjournment plans also were a factor. But, mainly, "the record is not that complicated . . . there's no reason not to go ahead," a committee source said.

Asked about a complaint raised Thursday by the National Organization for Women about Kennedy's membership in an all-male private club in San Francisco, Biden said it was a source of legitimate concern but Kennedy mitigated any damage by "getting out." Kennedy resigned from the club last month.

Biden's sentiments were echoed by Sen. Howard M. Metzenbaum (D-Ohio), who said, "We're not going to get a perfect nominee . . . from Ronald Reagan, and somewhere along the line we're going to have to fill the vacancy with someone."