GENEVA, NOV. 23 -- Secretary of State George P. Shultz and Soviet Foreign Minister Eduard Shevardnadze made progress in "constructive" talks on arms control and other issues but did not finish work on the intermediate-range nuclear forces (INF) treaty in the first of two days of scheduled talks.

The sketchy report on a long day of discussions, which centered on unfinished aspects of the treaty to be signed at the Dec. 8-10 Washington summit meeting, came from State Department spokesman Charles Redman. He said he was authorized by the Soviet as well as the U.S. side to describe the discussions as constructive.

A U.S. official said one of several points still not finally agreed involves the details of an on-site inspection arrangement: U.S. monitors are to be stationed in the Soviet Union for up to 13 years around a missile assembly site, while Soviet personnel are to be stationed around a missile plant in the United States.

One longstanding issue apparently was settled when Soviet officials provided detailed location of existing medium-range and shorter-range missiles that are to be eliminated.

Shultz and Shevardnadze met for 6 1/2 hours in several sessions, and then were dining together at the residence of U.S. Ambassador Joseph Petrone. In addition to the INF treaty, the two ministers concentrated on detailed plans for Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev's stay in Washington, Redman said. {Details on Page A16}

A "working group" of arms control officials headed by U.S. arms adviser Paul Nitze and Marshal Sergei Akhromeyev, chief of staff of the Soviet armed forces, met intermittently through the day to exchange ideas on remaining disagreements, Redman said.

Neither the two top diplomats nor their arms advisers were reported to be able to get past the remaining INF issues to a substantive discussion of strategic arms, which is the next arms accord on the U.S.-Soviet agenda and is expected to be the focus of negotiations in Washington between President Reagan and Gorbachev.

Redman indicated that the preparatory strategic arms discussion might take place Tuesday. This is the fourth round of talks between Shultz and Shevardnadze in a little more than two months.

While the INF talks continued, other aides headed by Assistant Secretary of State Rozanne Ridgeway and Deputy Foreign Minister Anatoly Adamishin met on regional issues, human rights and bilateral questions. {Details on Page A16}