GENEVA, NOV. 24 -- Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev's "working summit" with President Reagan will feature five substantive meetings of the two top leaders, according to a schedule negotiated by the U.S. and Soviet delegations here and made public today.

The Washington program for Gorbachev, as outlined by Secretary of State George P. Shultz and amplified by aides, will also include ceremonial and social activities and meetings with Congress, the press and private Americans.

As projected, Gorbachev is going to be extremely busy in his first visit to the United States, which is to last only about 72 hours.

Gorbachev, accompanied by his wife, Raisa, is to arrive in Washington the afternoon of Monday, Dec. 7.

His official program starts the following day and is planned in this fashion:

Tuesday, Dec. 8 -- White House arrival ceremony, South Lawn. Morning meeting with Reagan. Signing of Intermediate Nuclear Forces treaty, public statements, afternoon meeting with Reagan. White House State Dinner.

Wednesday, Dec. 9 -- Gorbachev breakfast for Vice President Bush and academic and scientific leaders, meeting with congressional leaders, morning meeting with Reagan. State Department luncheon. Afternoon meeting with Reagan. Return dinner at Soviet Embassy.

Thursday, Dec. 10 -- Meeting with Reagan and working lunch. Departure ceremony and departure from United States.

Somewhere along the way, at a time not yet established, Gorbachev is also expected to meet with U.S. business leaders and to hold a news conference.

Shultz and Soviet Foreign Minister Eduard Shevardnadze spent hours here going over all aspects of Gorbachev's schedule. According to State Department officials, they covered such items as the sequence of topics to be discussed by the two leaders and the way various subjects are to be approached.