Senate Minority Leader Robert J. Dole (R-Kan.) embraced the new medium-range missile treaty yesterday in a political minuet at the White House. He was introduced by President Reagan, who read a statement hardly mentioning Dole, stepped off the podium and denied trying to aid Dole's presidential bid.

"No, there's nothing of that kind here," Reagan said in response to questions about whether he was jumping into the Republican presidential campaign. "I am and have always been neutral with regard to the political race."

The appearance had drawn objections from campaign strategists for Vice President Bush, the Republican front-runner and Dole's chief target in the Iowa precinct caucuses Feb. 8. When reporters pelted Reagan with questions about his political motives, Dole and White House spokesman Marlin Fitzwater tried to block the president from answering.

"Let's let the senator" speak, Fitzwater said. When reporters insisted that Reagan answer the question before leaving the room, Dole said, "He cannot leave till I finish my statement."

Reagan, who almost always remains on the podium when he has brought a political figure to the White House press briefing room, stood to the side yesterday while Dole read a statement promising to "lead the fight" for approval of the treaty in the Senate.

The Dole appearance touched off recriminations in the White House, with Bush allies expressing anger that Reagan would join in the White House appearance. White House chief of staff Howard H. Baker Jr. viewed Dole's support as critical to hopes for early Senate ratification, but Baker was a target of private complaints from the Bush camp.

Asked whether he had requested the meeting, Dole grew vague. "This thing just happened," he said with a smile, adding that it was a "pretty good idea as it worked out."

Reagan denied he was indicating favor for Dole over Bush and said Dole had come to the White House in his role "as the leader for our side in the Senate, and I was bringing news because we have a common interest . . . . "

Dole has been criticized for his failure to endorse or reject the Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces (INF) Treaty that Reagan and Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev signed last week. Bush has been trying to capitalize on his unequivocal support of the pact in a series of campaign advertisements, speeches and television interviews in Iowa, where Dole's support seemed to be ebbing in recent days.

Once again yesterday, Dole seemed to stop short of unequivocal support for the treaty as it is now written. He said he and other senators would make efforts to "strengthen" it in the Senate, but he ruled out "killer amendments" that could doom the pact. Dole said there is "bipartisan concern" about the Soviet numerical advantage in conventional forces in Europe that will exist after the medium- and shorter-range nuclear-armed missiles are eliminated.

"We can make it clear in at least a statement that, you know, there'll be no other treaty considered unless there's some redress" in the conventional forces imbalance, he said, although he stopped short of endorsing such a statement. Dole had earlier said he had concerns about verification provisions, but announced yesterday that "I don't have any present concerns."

The senator took repeated indirect gibes at the vice president. "I don't want to get into a Bob Dole-George Bush thing," he said, "we just have different roles. Mine is an active role -- mine, as the leader of the Senate. He doesn't even vote on the treaty."

Bush, in a campaign stop in Springfield, Mass., said he was "delighted that he {Dole} is endorsing the INF Treaty. I have been encouraging the other Republican candidates to do this for some time. He's right to do that."

Staff writer Lloyd Grove contributed to this report.