MOSCOW, DEC. 21 -- An informal survey of about 400 people here found that 90 percent of those who responded believe that the Soviet Union does not fully protect their right to freedom of expression. The survey, though not scientific and carried out by a human rights group, gave some indication, however, of the limited success so far of Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev's campaign for glasnost, or greater openness.

When unofficial pollsters approached Muscovites door-to-door and in some public places, such as subway stations, and asked them about the protection of their civil rights, dozens responded with jeers and threats, and some warned police that the survey was being conducted, poll-takers said in an interview.

A quarter of those who were approached rebuffed all questions, often telling the pollsters that they had no reason to know the answers to the questions asked, the pollsters added.

The survey, comprising seven questions about Soviet human rights, was drawn up and circulated to 400 Soviets in November by members of the Moscow-based Friendship and Dialogue, one of dozens of research and discussion groups here with an interest in popularizing the cause of human rights in the Soviet Union. It is an informal club that features regular seminars on human rights and other social or political issues in the country.

Results of the survey have just been compiled.

Based on the responses of about 280 Muscovites and on the refusals to respond and the negative reactions of more than 100 others, the pollsters concluded that there was a general dissatisfaction with official Soviet organs designated to preserve human rights, and that there was widespread suspicion of information gatherers, poll-takers said.

In the Soviet Union, where such public surveys are rare, except for those occasionally circulated by the ruling Communist Party, responses to polls tend to be flat and predictable.

Despite the drive for glasnost that Gorbachev launched over two years ago, those who responded did not react with much hope or expectation that either the opportunities for free expression or human rights institutions would be liberalized greatly under the present Soviet leadership, some of the pollsters said.

Those questioned during the survey were "either aggressively hostile to the questions or they answered directly but said that nothing would come of the project," said Yuri Khronopulo, a member of the Friendship and Dialogue group who helped draw up and circulate the survey.

Asked in the survey whether they knew that a number of laws in the Soviet Union guarantee civil and political rights under the Helsinki accords, 73 percent of the respondents said "no," and 27 percent "yes."

The Helsinki accords, which include a broad declaration of human and civil rights, were signed by the Soviet Union and 34 other countries in 1975.

In the survey, respondents were told of Article 22 of the accords, which guarantees freedom of expression of opinion, and were asked whether the article is fulfilled in the Soviet Union. The response: 10 percent said it is, and 90 percent said it is not.

According to a summary of the results, "more often than in answers to other questions, here many answered very emotionally, saying, for example, 'No! No!' "

Asked whether they thought that an association should be created to protect their civil rights as provided in the accords, 61 percent answered affirmatively and 39 percent negatively.

Asked whether they believed that factors such as patriotism, nationality and religious affiliation are taken into account in how they are treated at the workplace, 85 percent of respondents answered "yes" and 15 percent "no."

In another question, those polled were asked whether a union representative adequately protected their union or material interests. In response, 86 percent said "no," and 14 percent "yes."

In a summary of the results, the questioners gave the following sampling of some of the reactions of those who declined to respond:

"Why do you need to know public opinion?"

"{You represent} a social organization? That can't be true. That doesn't exist!"

"Who is behind you?"

"This is a provocation!"

Others reacted even more harshly.

"I answer, and I will be imprisoned," one Muscovite told the pollsters.

About 25 minutes after the group members began canvassing a Moscow apartment building, a marked police car pulled up, followed by another.

A policeman asked the questioners to come to a nearby station for a "friendly discussion," but they declined.