JERUSALEM, JAN. 3 -- The government of Israel, sweeping aside objections from the United States, today announced it will expel nine Palestinian activists in retaliation for last month's wave of violence in the occupied West Bank and Gaza Strip.

The violence, which had decreased dramatically during the past 10 days, flared up again today when a woman was shot dead by a soldier who was chasing alleged stone throwers in an Arab suburb of Jerusalem.

The soldier and his commanding officer were suspended pending a military investigation into the death of the woman, the first shooting victim in nearly two weeks. At least 23 Palestinians have died since Dec. 9. {Story, Page A15.}

Expulsion is one of the most severe and controversial punishments Israel uses against its Palestinian opponents, and today's action marks the largest group to be designated for expulsion since Israel revived use of the measure in 1985.

The Army said the nine Palestinians, five from the West Bank and four from Gaza, are hard-core organizers and activists, most of whom have served time in Israeli prisons.

Five are said to be from Fatah, the main branch of the outlawed Palestine Liberation Organization. Three are alleged to be radical Islamic fundamentalists, and one is said to a senior agent of the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine, a PLO member group headed by George Habash.

Only three of the nine are accused of direct involvement in last month's rioting, which many analysts say began as a spontaneous outburst rather than as a planned, organized assault. But the Army says it believes their expulsion will serve as a deterrent to other activists who might be planning to instigate violence.

Lt. Col. Raanan Gissin, an Army spokesman, told reporters that the expulsions were being used "only in the most severe cases where we have clear-cut evidence against these people and where all other measures have failed. We believe their presence outside the territories will cause us less harm than if they stay in the territories."

The United States has long opposed expulsions, contending they violate the Fourth Geneva Convention of 1949, which bans deportations of people from occupied territories "regardless of their motive." In recent days, spokesmen for the White House and the State Department and U.S. Ambassador to Israel Thomas Pickering have expressed opposition to any expulsions.

But Israeli officials, led by Prime Minister Yitzhak Shamir and Defense Minister Yitzhak Rabin, have rejected the American position, contending Israel has the right to evict those who threaten its security. The government cites emergency defense regulations enacted by Britain in 1945 during its rule over Palestine as legal justification for the measures.

{In an interview from Jerusalem on ABC's "This Week with David Brinkley," Israeli Foreign Minister Shimon Peres said that because Israel never uses capital punishment in the occupied territories, "the most we can do is to deport in accordance with the law of the land," United Press International reported. Peres said that mass deportations were not called for as a result of the riots.}

A senior official said the list of those to be deported was drawn up by a committee that included representatives from the prime minister's office and the defense and foreign ministries. Those to be expelled, he said, "are no angels of peace, and they deserve not one inch of sympathy."

As for world reaction, the official added, "Who gives a damn? If we decide and carry on according to pressure applied by the international community, we will cease to exist."

At the same time it announced the expulsions, the Army said it was releasing without charge about 100 of the 1,000 or so Palestinians arrested in last month's riots as a gesture of good will because of the relative tranquility.

An Army statement said those released had pledged "they would not return to their evil ways," and it promised that others would also be freed soon if calm is maintained.

But many Palestinians in the West Bank and Gaza said they feared that the expulsions, coupled with today's shooting incident, could cause the violence to revive.

"This will worsen the situation," said Hanna Siniora, editor of a newspaper in Arab East Jerusalem. "This is the wrong policy to carry out at the moment -- instead of reconciliation and releasing those people arrested in order to cool things down, this deportation will add oil to the fire." Israel's international reputation, he said, "has been damaged a lot by what has happened, and what is happening today will damage it more."

Siniora expressed the views of many Palestinians when he said that most of those on the deportation list had been "very quiet" during the recent violence.

Palestinian nationalist organizations are generally believed to have been a step behind most of the rioting, which appeared to have been led by youths who were not necessarily affiliated with any particular movement and were often derisive of traditional nationalist leaders.

All of the nine are considered to have long track records of involvement in underground activity, other activists confirmed, and were considered prime targets for the military.

One of the most prominent of the nine is Jibril Mahmud Rajub, 34, the business manager of a women's Arabic monthly, who was arrested in 1970 and sentenced to life imprisonment for his role in a group that carried out about 10 attacks against Israel. He and another of the nine were released in a May 1985 prisoner exchange between Israel and the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine-General Command, a nationalist guerrilla faction. Rajub has been arrested and imprisoned twice since his release.

The Army described Rajub as an activist of Fatah, the mainstream group within the Palestine Liberation Organization, who was working as "right-hand man" to Feisal Husseini, a well-known West Bank activists who has been held in administrative detention without charge since September.

A friend said Rajub recently told him he had been "keeping his head down. He said the amazing thing about the uprising was that people like him had had nothing to do with what's going on."

The nine slated for expulsion are between 26 to 45 years old and include a lawyer, an engineer, a teacher, a university student, a prayer leader, a businessman and a journalist.

One of them, Husam Uthman Mohammed Hadar, is said to be a leader of the Shabiba youth movement. That group is said to be responsible for recent rioting in the Balata refugee camp near the West Bank town of Nablus, scene of recurrent violence in the recent wave.

Another, Jamal Shakir Jabara, allegedly organized riots in the West Bank town of Kalkiliya last month, while a third, Hasan Ghanem Abu Shakra, of Khan Yunis in the Gaza Strip, allegedly incited a mob there.

Those named have four days to file an appeal to a military advisory committee, whose decision they can then appeal to Israel's Supreme Court. There has never been a successful appeal, and the Army, citing "security reasons," has often sought successfully to have its evidence kept secret from the defense.

Nonetheless, a group of Israeli and Palestinian lawyers said they planned to take the cases to the Supreme Court in an attempt at least to stall the expulsions and build world opinion against the measures.

According to government figures, 19 Palestinians have been deported since Israel renewed its expulsion policy in August 1985, and three more cases are pending.

Palestinian rights advocates put the figure at 44 because they include those expelled after the 1985 prisoner exchange. Israel contends the Palestinians released in the exchange were never bona fide residents of the occupied territories.

In the past, Israel has often sent expelled activists to Jordan, where many West Bank residents hold nominal citizenship. But Jordan and Egypt have both announced that they will not accept any new deportees and have condemned the measures.