WARSAW, JAN. 6 -- An official poll indicates that the government of Gen. Wojciech Jaruzelski faces an overwhelmingly negative public mood and the risk of a popular uprising as it seeks to shake up the economy this year.

The survey, conducted by the government's Center for Study of Public Opinion, found that 80 percent of Poles say the country's mood is uneasy, 80 percent have entirely negative opinions about the current government and 60 percent think there are reasons for "a serious explosion {and} open social conflict" in Poland this year.

A copy of the poll was obtained from party sources. It was conducted Nov. 20 and a 25-page report was distributed to party officials last month. Partial results are being reported in the state-controlled media this week.

Results of the survey, one of a regular series, have raised questions in Communist Party circles about whether Jaruzelski's government will be able to implement its major new economic policy program this year, informed sources said.

The plan includes large price increases as well as reforms designed to make the economy operate according to free-market principles.

"Poles enter into the new year of 1988 completely unhappy and fearful of the nearest future," the report summarized. "The dominant mood at the end of the year can be paraphrased as, 'It's bad and it will be even worse.' "

The survey, conducted 10 days before a national referendum on Jaruzelski's reform plans, suggests a public mood far more negative than that shown by the official results of the plebiscite -- in which the government's propositions failed to win majority approval.

In that sense, the study seems to help explain why the communist leadership publicly conceded relatively unfavorable voting results, then reduced planned food price increases by half.

Jaruzelski won a commitment from the party Central Committee to press ahead with the rest of the economic program and an accompanying package of modest political reforms at a postreferendum meeting last month. But official concern over the public mood has been reflected in the postponement of price rises for several more months.

The details of increases in key items such as meat, basic foods, alcohol and cigarettes have yet to be announced.

At the same time, authorities have signaled that they will not seek to win new public support through an opening to the banned Solidarity union, which still functions in skeletal form.

In a statement issued yesterday, governmental spokesman Jerzy Urban rejected a proposal for a meeting between Jaruzelski and Solidarity leader Lech Walesa. Urban restated the longstanding official position that Solidarity activists can participate in the political process only if, as individuals, they join existing communist-controlled institutions.

The results of the government poll seem to bear out Solidarity's argument that Jaruzelski does not have sufficient social support to carry through an effective reordering of the economy.

According to the survey, seven out of 10 Poles regard the economic situation as "rather bad, bad, or very bad" and more than half are convinced that it will get worse.

Only 7 percent of those polled -- and only 11 percent of those who are members of the ruling communist Polish United Workers' party -- predicted that planned economic reforms would succeed, while only one in four thought the political situation would improve.

Remarkably, nearly 8 percent of the party's members who were polled openly predicted that the reforms would fail, while 80 percent said the prospect was "uncertain." Although somewhat more favorable than those for the nation as a whole, these results indicated Jaruzelski faces an uphill struggle for credibility even within the ruling apparatus.

Overall, the survey showed that 63 percent of those polled said that Polish society has no confidence in communist authorities, while only 1 percent said society fully trusts the authorities. The report added that 80 percent of 1,311 persons expressing opinions had exclusively negative ones about the current government.

Most of the numbers were considerably grimmer from the official perspective than those reported in previous year-end polls.

While only 15 percent predicted two years ago that Poland's situation would worsen, and 17 percent were pessimistic last year, 47.5 percent forecast a deteriorating national situation in 1988 -- nearly triple the number of those who foresaw improvement.

"In the 1984-87 period there has been an evident crystallization of views," said the report, which was overseen by polling chief Col. Stanislaw Kwiatkowski, a veteran aide to Jaruzelski. "The percentage of indifferent opinions decreased, and at the same time the negative views increased."

Perhaps the most alarming change for authorities came in opinions on the degree of social unrest.

Between August and November of last year, the report said, the percentage of people describing the national mood as uneasy nearly doubled to 81.9 percent, while the percentage describing the country as tranquil decreased from 42 to 13 percent.

Asked if a "serious explosion" was possible during 1988, only 18 percent said there was no reason for such an upheaval, while 60 percent said there was reason.

The result was slightly mitigated by a further finding that most of those who believe a popular uprising is justified think it probably will not happen because people remain worn out by the Solidarity movement of 1980-81 and subsequent martial law or have lost hope that protest will change anything.