LONDON, JAN. 13 -- Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher called on France and Spain today to increase their level of military cooperation with the North Atlantic Treaty Organization.

In a speech to the Foreign Press Association here, Thatcher expressed the hope "that those NATO members who are not part of NATO's integrated military structure will extend their military cooperation" with the NATO alliance.

The definition applies only to France and Spain, neither of which coordinates its defense planning with NATO nor has committed its troops to a NATO command.

Thatcher made specific reference to France, which withdrew from the NATO integrated structure in 1966, but has recently sought to strengthen its bilateral defense relationships with West Germany and Britain.

Such arrangements were "useful," Thatcher said, "provided that {their} clear and demonstrable effect is to strengthen NATO, and not to erode or undermine its unity."

Thatcher, who considers herself a transatlantic bridge between the United States and the rest of NATO in Europe, recently rejected a French suggestion to coordinate targeting of French and British independent nuclear weapons, sources here said.

Although Britain reserves the ultimate right to use its own nuclear forces when and where it sees fit in a national emergency, its weapons also are committed to coordinated NATO targeting.

France, on the other hand, considers all matters pertaining to its nuclear deterrent to be secret and separate from NATO.

Spain was not mentioned by name. But Thatcher's plural reference was seen to refer equally to Madrid, which currently is locked in a dispute with the United States over the continued basing of 72 U.S. fighter planes on Spanish territory.

Although Spain joined NATO in 1982, the government of President Felipe Gonzalez is committed to staying out of the integrated military structure and to reducing the U.S. military presence there.

Gonzalez has insisted that the issue be treated as a bilateral one between Washington and Madrid, having nothing to do with Spain's obligations as a NATO member.

But the position of the Reagan administration is that the planes are assigned to NATO duties and therefore closely concern the integrated alliance defense system.

Until now, no other NATO member has taken a public stand on the matter. Thatcher's comments seemed strongly to imply that she takes the American side.

In other remarks, Thatcher said she supported the idea of a "full-scale NATO summit in the first part of 1988, before President Reagan goes to Moscow for his next meeting" with Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev.

Although such a NATO meeting has been rumored, the administration has so far declined to commit itself.

Thatcher criticized the Soviet Union for what she termed persistent human rights violations, its continued military occupation of Afghanistan and its activities in Angola, Cambodia and Nicaragua.

But she repeated her often expressed high praise for Gorbachev, to whom, she said, credit was due for "very important progress" made recently in East-West relations.

In her speech, and a later question-and-answer period, Thatcher also was critical of what she sees as a lack of U.S. action to help resolve conflict in the Middle East.

"I am somewhat dismayed," she said, "that we have had a whole presidency pass in the United States without making substantial progress" toward a solution of the Arab-Israeli problem.

She described recent unrest in the Israeli-occupied Gaza Strip and the West Bank as "born out of frustration at lack of progress" and said that it "only underlines the need to work for something which can offer hope to the Palestinian people and indeed all the people of the region."

Thatcher repeated her belief that "an international conference, to act as a framework for bilateral negotiations" between Israel and its Arab neighbors and the Palestinians remained the "most promising way forward."