President Reagan, who will turn 77 Feb. 5, passed his six-month cancer checkup with flying colors yesterday, then left Bethesda Naval Hospital with his wife, Nancy, for an extended weekend at Camp David.

White House physician John Hutton said that the various tests yesterday indicated that "the president is fit and enjoys a remarkably strong and healthy condition."

A statement issued by Hutton and other physicians who examined the president said they found "no recurrence of cancer" of his colon and none of the nonmalignant growths that have been discovered four times over the last two years.

Using a long, flexible instrument that provides a magnified image, doctors inspected the president's colon to the point where a two-inch cancerous polyp was removed July 12, 1985.

"The colonscopic examination . . . showed no recurrence of cancer," the statement said. "No polyps were found. The CAT scan was normal. The chest X-ray was normal. The electrocardiograph responded normal to the stress test. The heart rate and blood pressure responded in a normal pattern."

The statement said test results on Reagan's prostate will not be available for "several days, but we expect no problems."

A cheerful Reagan, who suffered from an upset stomach earlier this week and was required to fast before yesterday's tests, flashed an "Okay" sign as he left the hospital.

The Reagans flew by helicopter to Camp David, where they plan to remain until Monday, when the Rev. Martin Luther King Jr.'s birthday is observed as a federal holiday.

Reagan's medical team yesterday included Hutton, David Utz, a urologic surgeon from the Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minn.; Oliver H. Beahrs, a Mayo Clinic surgeon; his son, John Randolf Beahrs, in private practice in St. Paul, Minn., and Robert W. Beart, a colon and rectal surgeon from Rochester Methodist Hospital.