BONN, JAN. 19 -- Soviet Foreign Minister Eduard Shevardnadze warned today that western proposals to deploy new nuclear weapons as substitutes for those to be scrapped under last month's U.S.-Soviet treaty would "scuttle" all of the recent progress in disarmament.

Shevardnadze ended a two-day visit to Bonn on a sour note by rebuffing Chancellor Helmut Kohl's repeatedly expressed wishes for a visit here by Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev during the first half of this year.

A decision on a Kohl-Gorbachev meeting was postponed until after June.

In an opening statement at a press conference, Shevardnadze strongly criticized proposals being considered by the North Atlantic Treaty Organization to deploy a variety of new nuclear weapons in Europe that are permitted under the Intermediate-range Nuclear Forces (INF) treaty.

The options under study include new battlefield-range missiles, air-launched cruise missiles and aircraft using advanced, radar-evading Stealth technology to penetrate Soviet air defenses.

NATO has not decided formally to put any of the weapons in place. But senior NATO military officials have said that they could accept the INF agreement only on the condition that such weapons are deployed in the early 1990s to bolster the alliance's ability to deter a Warsaw Pact attack.

Shevardnadze rejected suggestions by NATO's secretary general, Lord Carrington, and other western leaders that the INF treaty should be followed by a "pause" in arms control steps while NATO adjusts its defense strategy.

"Take the discussion about 'a pause' in nuclear disarmament matters. Why is this necessary?" Shevardnadze said. "It is equivalent to arranging for so-called compensatory arms in Europe.

"This is a very dangerous trend, which if realized will scuttle everything that has been achieved in the sphere of nuclear disarmament and set us all back a long way. This must not be permitted," he said.

Shevardnadze, in response to a question, also specifically urged West Germany and other NATO members to drop plans to deploy a new, modernized version of the tactical, or battlefield-range, Lance missile.

NATO agreed in principle in 1983 to deploy an updated version of the Lance, but the West German government is resisting pressure from the United States and Britain to commit itself by May to go through with the plan.

Bonn is reluctant to agree to upgrade the Lance because the missile's range is so short that it would most likely be used in one of the two Germanys, Europe's principal front-line states, in case of war.

The Lance has a range of 70 miles and is not covered by the INF treaty. The INF agreement provides for scrapping missiles with ranges of between 300 and 3,500 miles.

The other new weapons systems being considered by NATO are not covered by the treaty because they would be carried on airplanes or, possibly, on ships. The INF treaty covers only ground-launched missiles.

Shevardnadze's call yesterday for dismantling all tactical nuclear arms, or those with ranges of less than 300 miles, drew a sharp rebuff today from NATO headquarters in Brussels.

A senior NATO official told reporters that the Soviets were trying "to seduce the Germans away from us" by appealing to West German anxieties over short-range weapons. NATO contends that some tactical nuclear arms must remain as a deterrent because of what it views as Warsaw Pact superiority in conventional, or non-nuclear, arms.

In contrast, a NATO spokesman welcomed Shevardnadze's expressed willingness to postpone talks on tactical nuclear arms. Shevardnadze signaled yesterday that the Soviets temporarily would accept NATO's insistence that multilateral negotiations in Vienna cover only conventional weapons.

"We . . . hope that his words will be matched by deeds," the NATO spokesman said.

Disputes over disarmament in the talks here were not the cause of the Soviets' snub to Kohl, West German government sources and western diplomats said.

Instead, Kohl apparently had been unrealistic in signaling before Shevardnadze's visit that a date might be fixed for a German-Soviet summit with Gorbachev, they said.

Shevardnadze's visit to Bonn, the first in five years by a Soviet foreign minister, confirmed a 1 1/2-year trend toward improved relations. But the Soviets' refusal to schedule a Kohl-Gorbachev meeting showed that Moscow still is maintaining a discrete diplomatic distance from Bonn.