AMMAN, JORDAN, JAN. 28 -- King Hussein of Jordan, expressing "pain, anguish and discouragement" with Washington, said last night that the United States has fallen "under the influence of extremists in Israel who cannot see beyond tomorrow."

In his first interview with American reporters since Palestinian protest erupted into violence Dec. 9, Hussein said his own influence and that of the Palestine Liberation Organization had received a "jolt" and he indirectly conceded that his influence in the occupied West Bank and Gaza Strip was waning. "It's time for all of us to reassess," he said.

He said that, by acting for themselves, the Palestinians had "chosen to lessen their reliance on others outside" the territories. Analysts said this formulation was tantamount to admitting that residents of the occupied territories, which Jordan ruled from 1948 until they were captured by Israel in 1967, had rejected his efforts to speak in their name.

Hussein spoke as a PLO delegation conferred with Jordanian officials. Diplomatic sources suggested the meeting reflected Jordanian acknowledgement of a need created by the uprising in the territories to take PLO views into account for the first time since PLO-Jordanian negotiations were broken off nearly two years ago.

Hussein devoted the major part of the interview with The Washington Post and ABC News to a pessimistic catalog of steadily deteriorating relations with the United States, which, he said, had "lost very much of its credibility."

He noted at one point that "we're still, I suppose, friends," although he said the two "no longer" enjoyed "the kind of relationship that had once existed" between them.

He charged that the Reagan administration had tried to "set" him "up" last fall by seeking his support for a plan to bring him and Israeli Prime Minister Yitzhak Shamir to Washington in December during the U.S.-Soviet summit conference.

"I somehow understood what was expected of me was to commit political suicide if I had answered in the affirmative," he said. Hussein said he refused because such a meeting meant abandoning the international conference he feels is needed to reach a comprehensive Middle East peace.

Aides said he was immediately suspicious since the United States previously had opposed such an international conference because of Soviet participation, but suddenly was willing to have Soviet cosponsorship of direct talks with Shamir.

Reiterating his frequent accusation that U.S. policy in the Middle East has become a domestic American political issue, he said, "It is fairly obvious that the effect of Israel in terms of domestic policies of the United States is extremely keen in terms of total support of Israel, right or wrong.

"The U.S. appears to be more and more under the influence of extremist elements, short-sighted elements, in Israeli society, and by that I mean their influence is, of course, tremendous over decision-makers, policymakers in the U.S."

"Look at the United Nations Security Council," he said, "where the U.S. recently joined the other members denouncing Israeli deportations of Palestinians, then immediately issued a statement to the effect that this would be the last resolution against Israel.

"Well, how do you know what Israel will do next?" he asked. He decried U.S.-Israeli relations as "an alliance between the biggest power in the world and a state that is in occupation of Arab territory, that denies people their rights," but that is "supported right or wrong, militarily and in every respect."

He charged that the United States had abandoned a "balanced approach toward maybe two schools of thought in Israel," a phrase that aides said meant Washington had failed to support Foreign Minister Shimon Peres, who tried but failed to force Shamir to support a peace conference.

"It seems to me that the decision-makers are under the influence of the extremists in Israel, people who cannot see beyond tomorrow, or the day after tomorrow, let alone years from now," he said.

But the king said he was encouraged by recent statements by U.S. Jewish leaders critical of Israeli tactics in the occupied territories.

"I have every hope that what is happening on the ground, the shock of it, may cause many to reconsider their positions," he said, and he hinted he had not given up entirely on the Reagan administration.

"If you think of the United States the way I used to think of it years ago," Hussein said, "yes, I would think anything is possible."

Despite the traditional diplomatic paralysis common during American and Israeli election years, he said, "I hope there still may be a chance for the administration of the United States to leave behind something worthwhile to be remembered by in this part of the world."