MOSCOW, FEB. 1 -- The Communist Party newspaper Pravda, in an attack today on political extremists, called a group of ultranationalists "anti-Semites" and accused the editor of the unofficial journal Glasnost of serving western interests.

Taking an uncompromising view on wayward political activity, Pravda appeared to be laying down the rules for a new Soviet orthodoxy as Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev's policy of openness takes shape.

Although it welcomed the appearance of most of the 30,000 unofficial clubs and groups now active in the Soviet Union, the newspaper said that some promoted "political extremism, petty bourgeois outbursts and anti-Sovietism."

"The main thing is to continue patriotic national upbringing and to convince people of the rightness of our socialist ideals, using the force of public opinion and when necessary, the force of law," Pravda said.

The article today in Pravda followed an attack on some informal groups and their leaders in Sunday's Komsomolskaya Pravda, the paper of the Communist youth organization, that also insinuated that the West is instigating anti-Soviet political activity.

That attack, aimed principally at Boris Kagarlitsky, a spokesman for the Club of Social Initiatives, one of the most visible of the clubs, was seen by activists as an attempt to undercut the leadership of the independent groups and to assert control of the Communist Youth League, or Komsomol.

At a press conference today marking the end of a conference of clubs held in Moscow that drew 320 people, Andrei Isayev, spokesman for a federation of clubs, said the Komsomolskaya Pravda article represented a "crude and primitive understanding" of informal groups and was an example of continuing attempts to polarize the movement.

The two articles, appearing back to back in the central press, suggest that Communist Party ideologists are now prepared to connect western influence and Soviet dissident activity, historically a heavily loaded combination and a linkage made last summer in a speech by Viktor Chebrikov, head of the KGB, the Soviet secret police.

Since January 1987, when Gorbachev called for greater openness and democratization in Soviet society, the term dissident here has been an ambiguous one. Authorities have adopted various strategies to control public demonstrations, but no political activist is known to have been tried and sentenced to jail in recent months.

The phenomenon of the informal groups and clubs initially caught party authorities unaware, and now the Komsomol, for instance, is struggling to catch up with the movement.

Pravda's attack on Glasnost -- an independent journal put out by former political prisoners and named after the Russian word for openness -- was twinned with criticism of ultranationalists in an informal group called Pamyat, which surfaced publicly last spring. Pravda said Pamyat had been taken over by a small band of "anti-Semites."

Although other Soviet newspapers have attacked Pamyat for its chauvinistic views, this was the first time Pravda directly accused the group of anti-Semitism, and it quoted letters from outraged readers. Pravda called on the group to return to its original goal of preserving historical monuments.

In the case of Glasnost, Pravda took charges of extremism further, accusing its editor, Sergei Grigoryants, of being anti-Soviet and of pandering to western interests. "His writings resemble articles that can be quite often seen in the western press on the subject of 'human rights violations' and 'political prisoners' -- as if they were reprints from there," Pravda said.

Pravda noted that Grigoryants had been tried for criminal offenses and anti-Soviet activities. Grigoryants, a literary critic, was released from prison early last year, among a group of prisoners freed under a government review of their cases.

Pravda criticized other groups, including the radical, dissident seminar "Democracy and Humanism," which has called for the total de-ideologization of the Soviet Union.

"What do they all want? From the West they are told to unite, to create a single platform, to seize the initiative," Pravda said.

The long Pravda article was the second by the party paper in a month on the growing phenomenon of unofficial political clubs and groups that have sprouted up here in the past year. The first was a front-page editorial that welcomed the initiative shown by some groups, but warned against extremism. Today's article took a harsher tone and focused on specific targets.

Komsomolskaya Pravda zeroed in on Kagarlitsky, of the Club of Social Initiatives, accusing him of having served a sentence for anti-Soviet activity -- for misrepresenting himself as leader of a "movement" to the western press.