A secret presidential study has harshly criticized State Department officials, the ambassador and Marines for neglecting security at the U.S. Embassy in Moscow.

"A fundamental reorientation of the way we do business in the Soviet Union is critical," asserted the report by a blue-ribbon panel that President Reagan appointed last spring.

The report scored Ambassador Arthur A. Hartman for an "aloof" management style, called embassy working conditions a "national disgrace" and said Marine guards "tolerated" then "covered up" misconduct, such as sexual activities, drunkenness, brawling and currency manipulation.

"Many share responsibility for the security vulnerabilities that existed and in some cases still exist," said the panel, headed by former defense secretary Melvin R. Laird.

{A State Department official told The Washington Post last night that the report was submitted to Secretary of State George P. Shultz last summer, before government agencies concluded in November that there had been no KGB nighttime intrustions into the U.S. Embassy in Moscow, as earlier feared. "The report was an explanation for a worst-case scenario which we know now did not happen," said an official who asked not to be quoted by name. "In that respect it is somewhat of an embarrassment today."}

State Department spokesman Charles E. Redman said the report has not been made public because it is a confidential document for Shultz.

Laird said he cannot talk about the report unless the department unseals it, and urged release of an unclassified version.

Since the scandals broke, Marine Sgt. Clayton J. Lonetree has been convicted of spying. But other allegations, such as reports that KGB agents were allowed to prowl the embassy's top-secret areas, have been discounted.

The report said what happened at the embassy "may never be known," and added, "Our investigation has revealed that a situation existed . . . that would have permitted the incidents to have occurred as alleged . . . ."

Robert E. Lamb, assistant secretary of state for diplomatic security, said steps have been taken to close "some holes" in the embassy's security, including upgrading security and adding to the counterintelligence staff.

Some Laird report findings are new; others repeat concerns raised previously about the embassy.

Laird called the embassy a "pigsty," and the report said it was a fire trap. Last week, fire broke out in a section of the embassy.

Corridors were cluttered with papers, books and personal effects; stairwells and hallways were "strewn with broken equipment and machinery parts awaiting repair and disposal," the report said. It complained that diplomats there "{work} in a seedy, disgraceful facility with inadequate support from Washington."

It said some Marines with discipline problems may have been assigned there "as punishment," a situation ripe for the KGB, the Soviet secret police.