President Reagan advised Congress yesterday that Panama, whose military strongman has been indicted on narcotics charges, and three other countries -- Afghanistan, Iran and Syria -- have not cooperated with the United States to halt drug trafficking and are liable to an aid cutoff and other sanctions.

Ann B. Wrobelski, assistant secretary of state for international narcotics matters, acknowledged that the long-expected action against Panama has no immediate practical effect because all U.S. aid to Panama has been suspended. She also said Reagan plans to take a "wait-and-see" approach before deciding on possible further steps against the government controlled by Gen. Manuel Antonio Noriega.

U.S.-Panamanian relations have been severely strained by Noriega's indictment by two federal grand juries in Florida and his ousting of Panama's civilian, figurehead president, Eric Arturo Delvalle.

The administration continues to recognize Delvalle, who went into hiding, as president. Delvalle's ambassador here, Juan Sosa, who refused to relinquish the embassy to a Noriega-named successor and who still has U.S. recognition, announced yesterday a plan to increase the financial burdens on the struggling Panamanian economy by encouraging withholding of debts, taxes and other payments until constitutional government is restored.

Congress directed in 1986 that the president must certify annually whether 24 major drug-trade countries are helping curb the flow of drugs to this country and take punitive measures against countries that fail to gain certification, including an aid cutoff and a U.S. vote against any loans they might seek from international lending institutions.

In decertifying Panama, the administration called it the "major Latin America center for laundering narcotics profits and a major transit point for cocaine from South America." It said that despite past praise for cooperation, U.S. officials now believe that the Panamanian military "cooperates only when . . . in their interest . . . and that full cooperation" with Noriega is impossible.

Afghanistan, Iran and Syria, decertified last year, receive no U.S. aid and have no significant U.S. trade that could be subjected to sanctions.

Reagan certified as cooperative in the drug fight: the Bahamas, Belize, Bolivia, Brazil, Burma, Colombia, Ecuador, Hong Kong, India, Jamaica, Malaysia, Mexico, Morocco, Nigeria, Pakistan, Peru and Thailand.

In an unusual move, Reagan sent Congress detailed justifications for certifying Colombia and Mexico. He said the government of Colombia, where the notorious Medellin cartel controls much of the illicit U.S. cocaine trafficking, is among the most cooperative despite being "literally besieged by superbly armed trafficking and insurgent groups" that have murdered many senior officials. He said Mexico, a major drug producer and transit point, is cracking down on official corruption and taking other steps to return its drug-interdiction program to the relatively effective levels of the 1970s and early 1980s.

Laos, Lebanon and Paraguay were described as failing to cooperate but were certified on grounds of U.S. "vital national interests." The United States wants Laotian cooperation in seeking the remains of missing U.S. servicemen from the Vietnam war. The administration concluded that drug traffic in strife-torn Lebanon is controlled by Syria, and said it wants to assess whether Paraguay, which recently resumed cooperation on drug matters, will continue the effort in a meaningful way.

Sen. Claiborne Pell (D-R.I.), chairman of the Foreign Relations Committee, said, "Despite record drug seizures and a substantial increase in arrests and convictions . . . we are losing this war. It isn't enough to 'just say no.' "

Rep. Charles Rangel (D-N.Y.), chairman of the House Select Committee on Narcotics Abuse and Control, charged that Reagan decertified Panama "only under public and congressional pressure."

Sen. Alfonse M. D'Amato (R-N.Y.) proposed a trade embargo against Panama, and Sen. Pete Wilson (R-Calif.) called for a joint resolution to disapprove Mexico's certification because its drug war is "a mockery."

{In Mexico City yesterday, special correspondent William A. Orme reported, Mexican President Miguel de la Madrid announced a new cabinet-level task force to oversee the drug war on Mexico's borders.

{And en route to the Brussels NATO summit, President Reagan's spokesman, Marlin Fitzwater, said that while trade sanctions "have not been very successful in the past in other cases, we certainly have them under consideration."}