BAGHDAD, IRAQ, MAY 28 -- Iraqi President Saddam Hussein called on his fellow Arab leaders today to declare that strong U.S. support for Israel precludes American "friendship with the Arabs" and suggested using oil as a lever to force a change in U.S. policy in the Middle East.

In a keynote speech opening a special Arab League summit here, the Iraqi leader said also that Arab nations should make clear that "if Israel attacks us, we are going to hit back fiercely, and if Israel uses weapons of mass destruction, we are not going to hesitate to use such weapons."

Saddam Hussein's remarks underscored his efforts to win unified Arab support for a more confrontational approach toward American Middle East policies. With Egypt and Saudi Arabia, two of Washington's closest Arab allies, expected to argue against such an approach, it is unclear what response the Iraqi initiative will get.

In addition, three key Arab leaders have already indicated disagreements with Baghdad by boycotting the summit. Syrian President Hafez Assad refused to attend because it is hosted by Saddam Hussein, his most bitter rival in the Arab world. Algerian President Chadli Bendjedid and Morocco's King Hassan II also stayed away, along with the leaders of Oman and Lebanon.

"The United States bears . . . the first responsibility for Israeli aggression against the Palestinian people, despite what it portrays from time to time as criticism of this or that {Israeli} position," Saddam Hussein said in his speech. "We have to state frankly and clearly that it cannot continue to pursue this policy at the same time that it claims friendship with the Arabs."

The Iraqi leader, who commands the world's second-largest petroleum reserves after Saudi Arabia, then appeared to suggest using Arab oil to influence U.S. policy. "We have to announce in the loudest voice possible that nobody, and I repeat nobody . . . has the right to enjoy our resources while it opposes us," he said. "What I am calling for is to employ all our resources and potential, and if we do that, we do not need battles."

Jordan's King Hussein, an ally of Iraq, did not criticize the United States by name, but declared in a comment apparently aimed at Washington: "The human rights of Arab Palestinians are violated every second and without us hearing any condemnation from those who always show their concern for human rights everywhere except for Palestinians. It's time for us to act."

The Palestine Liberation Organization requested the summit principally to discuss the massive immigration of Soviet Jews to Israel. This influx, expected to total 150,000 this year, is seen as a threat to regional peace by many Arabs, who predict Israel will settle the newcomers in the occupied West Bank and Gaza Strip.

Despite assurances to the contrary from U.S. and Soviet officials, some Arab leaders see the immigration as an effort by the two superpowers to boost Israel's morale and manpower resources. Hoping to draw attention to their views, the Arab leaders will send Presidents Bush and Gorbachev a message on the issue prior to the two leaders' meeting in Washington later this week.

King Hussein, who first raised the alarm about the Soviet-Jewish influx, charged today that it is "direct aggression" against the Palestinians and a "potential aggression" against his country. Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak, however, sought to calm emotions, arguing against viewing the migration "from the logic of fear." Mubarak, without elaborating, said also that within "the next few months, the negative repercussions {of the influx} will be minimized."

The Baghdad gathering comes at a time of intense Arab frustration over economic problems and the loss of Soviet and East European political support following the upheavals in those countries. Many also are disillusioned with U.S. efforts to resolve the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. Those efforts reached a dead end two months ago when Israeli Premier Yitzhak Shamir rejected Secretary of State James A. Baker III's proposals to discuss elections in the occupied territories with Palestinian leaders at a meeting in Cairo.

The impasse since then has impaired the influence of Egypt, Washington's staunchest ally in the region, because of Mubarak's intensive efforts to help set up the Cairo dialogue, Arab sources said. As a result, they said, many Arab leaders may be ready to give greater recognition to Saddam Hussein's more aggressive approach to the problem.