Soviet President Mikhail Gorbachev concluded his summit talks with President Bush last night saying they "have established a personal rapport" but conceding that "some real problems" remain between the United States and Soviet Union.

After a day of talks at Camp David in which the contentious issue of the future of Germany arose in the final minutes, Gorbachev said "neither President Bush nor myself turned a blind eye" to the serious differences between them.

Although the two leaders skirted the issue of Germany during discussions that focused on regional disputes yesterday, Secretary of State James A. Baker III said the German question surfaced as the two leaders compared notes about their planned statements at a White House news conference scheduled for this morning. White House press secretary Marlin Fitzwater said it was "the briefest" of conversations.

Bush told reporters that he and Gorbachev had found "an awful lot of common ground" on regional conflicts and bilateral relations. But, when questioned about his decision to sign the U.S.-Soviet trade pact while the Soviet Union continues its economic blockade of Lithuania, Bush was defensive. "Why do you single out one agreement" for questioning, he demanded of a reporter. "If someone wants to argue with me, fine, we'll take him on." He added, "I'm doing what I think is in the best interest" of the nation.

Meanwhile, administration officials said the two leaders are expected to pledge at their news conference that they will continue the pattern of recent years and will hold "regular" summit meetings. While not setting a precise date, officials said the next meeting is expected to be in the Soviet Union, possibly before the end of the year.

Seated around a sunny patio table at the presidential retreat with just a handful of their top advisers present, Bush and Gorbachev spent more than two hours discussing through interpreters possible solutions to conflicts in Asia, Central America and the Middle East, Fitzwater said.

On arrival at Camp David, after a helicopter ride with Bush from Washington, Gorbachev said, "The most important thing today we're going to discuss is go over the planet and its flash points and discuss regional issues." On the flight there, according to a source, Bush pointed out landmarks to Gorbachev, and while pointing at subdivisions he was familiar with in McLean, told the Soviet leader how one buys a house in the United States.

The two leaders' agenda included long-festering regional disputes such as the stalemated civil war in Afghanistan, the conflict in Cambodia, U.S. complaints about Soviet backing for Cuba, and Cuba's role in supporting leftist rebels in El Salvador. According to a U.S. official, Gorbachev defended Moscow's support for Cuba in the discussions with Bush. Other Soviet officials have responded to U.S. complaints about Cuba by saying that Soviet support is a necessary counter to U.S. pressure against Cuban leader Fidel Castro.

One outcome of yesterday's talks on regional conflicts was a joint statement issued by the two leaders last night promising to work together to expedite food aid to war-torn Ethiopia, with U.S. food transported on Soviet aircraft, and seeking United Nations auspices for an international conference to spur peace talks in the troubled Horn of Africa.

Bush raised with Gorbachev the status of Jews who have been refused permission to leave the Soviet Union, Fitzwater said. While praising Gorbachev's efforts to open Soviet society and relax restrictions on emigration, Bush pressed Gorbachev on specific cases of "refuseniks" who are still denied exit visas, Fitzwater said. Gorbachev replied that "he was still working to resolve many of them," he added. U.S. officials say there are about 60 unresolved long-term refusenik cases

Both leaders discussed antisemitism "and agreed to speak out against prejudice and any trends towards antisemitism," Fitzwater said. There have been reports of intensified antisemitic attacks in the Soviet Union in recent months, and the National Conference on Soviet Jewry yesterday issued a statement calling on Gorbachev to make "a forceful, unequivocal condemnation" of antisemitism.

Fitzwater reported that the two leaders also reviewed the pattern of Soviet Jewish emigration to Israel and the United States and discussed the controversial subject of direct flights to Israel. Moscow has been under pressure from Arab states not to allow such flights on grounds that the immigrants would be settled in the occupied territories.

While regional conflicts dominated the agenda, both U.S. and Soviet officials were questioned frequently about why German issues had not figured in the talks. Soviet spokesman Arkady Maslennikov, pressed by reporters to say whether progress was made yesterday on the difficult subjects of Germany and Lithuania, replied, "My dear friends, you know, people live for centuries and they create problems for tens or a hundred years and you expect {them} to be decided in {a} few hours on meeting in the woods."

Senior officials said that German issues were not the subject of extensive discussions after the first day because it became evident in those talks that there was little promise of early resolution or even early moves toward compromise.

A participant in the Thursday afternoon White House meeting on Germany and Europe said Bush set forth a nine-point position which had been carefully worked up in recent weeks in an effort to ease Soviet concerns about a united Germany.

Gorbachev responded with a very general and at times confusing rendition of Soviet concerns and security requirements about Germany, U.S. sources said. One U.S. official described Gorbachev's presentation as "a kaleidoscope of Soviet concerns, fears, hopes and desires, including a lot of contradictory statements that need to be fleshed out."

Soviet Ambassador Alexander Bessmertnykh presented Assistant Secretary of State Raymond G.H. Seitz on Wednesday a written copy of a Soviet plan for enhancement of the 35-nation Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe (CSCE) into a "Greater European Council" that would safeguard borders and help to resolve international conflicts. But there was little discussion of the Soviet plan in the Thursday meeting, U.S. sources said. And last night Gorbachev, as he has in the past, stressed that the German issue should be addressed in the "Two plus Four" mechanism involving the two German states and the victorious allies from World War II: the United States, Soviet Union, Britain and France.

Fitzwater said yesterday both leaders felt the Thursday's discussion of Germany was "quite productive" in that "they both have a better feel for each other's political and military concerns as it relates to the various alliances." He added, "They both have a better understanding of how they see the role of CSCE, how they see the role of NATO, about the need for United States forces to remain in Europe, about the Helsinki Final Act and what that means for Germany's right to make its own choices about what alliances it belongs to."

Much the same thing was said yesterday from the Soviet viewpoint by Valentin Falin, chief of the International Department of the Soviet Communist Party Central Committee and former Soviet ambassador to West Germany. The United States made its position on Germany clearer in the Thursday meeting, Falin said, and the Soviet presentation will give the U.S. side "some impetus to better understand the Soviet interests and concerns."

Fitzwater said that following the Thursday discussion, the leaders decided to turn over the matter to Baker and Shevardnadze to discuss when they meet next week at Copenhagen in a CSCE Human Rights conference and in other meetings to come, thus putting the matter on a slow-motion track.

A U.S. participant said the summit was a necessary way station in the evolving diplomacy on Germany, but the real potential for movement will come from continuing efforts involving the United States, West Europeans and the Soviets in the months ahead.

U.S. sources said the nine points presented by Bush to Gorbachev on Thursday are:

Willingness to consider limitations on armed forces of a united Germany and other nations of the central area of Europe as part of a future treaty reducing land armies and other conventional forces on the continent. At this stage, the United States and its allies would like to conclude the current Conventional Forces in Europe (CFE) treaty now in negotiations without this complication.

Acceleration of negotiations on short-range nuclear forces in Europe, to follow quickly on completion of the current CFE accord.

Endorsement of transitional arrangements under which Soviet troops now in East Germany could remain there for a number of years.

Reiteration of pledges that a united Germany will not develop nuclear, chemical or biological weapons.

Assurances that NATO troops will not be deployed in what is now East Germany, even after a unified Germany joins the NATO alliance.

Pledges that guarantees will be issued of the inviolability of the current borders of Germany, a matter of prime importance to both Poland and the Soviet Union.

Willingness to upgrade CSCE by giving the organization a permanent secretariat and improving its responsibilities and effectiveness.

Review and revamping of NATO's strategy and force structure to make the alliance less menacing to the Soviet Union and reflect new realities in Europe.

Approval of economic arrangements between West Germany and the Soviet Union, under which Bonn will pay the cost of maintaining Soviet troops in East Germany for a transitional period, and will subsidize new housing for them when they return to the U.S.S.R.

Staff writers Ann Devroy and R. Jeffrey Smith contributed to this report.