MOSCOW, JUNE 15 -- A congress of Soviet miners today formed the basis of an independent labor union and passed a resolution calling on the government of Prime Minister Nikolai Ryzhkov to resign and for the Communist Party to give up its vast financial assets and properties.

The workers, representing every major coal mine in the country, said in a resolution that the Communist Party no longer protects or represents the interests of the country's workers. "We do not consider the Communist Party of the Soviet Union our party," said the resolution, passed by a vote of 308 to 116. "We call for a mass exit from the party."

As the miners expressed their dissatisfaction in the Ukrainian city of Donetsk, Communist Party Politburo member Yuri Maslyukov told reporters in Moscow that the miners' vote of no confidence was an "alarming and serious signal."

The miners' congress highlighted the widespread economic anxiety throughout the Soviet Union. The Supreme Soviet, the standing legislature, voted overwhelmingly Thursday to delay the leadership's proposal for what most economists here say must be an essential component of economic reform -- a sharp rise in the price of bread -- to avoid further popular disgust and possible unrest.

Last summer, miners in the Ukraine, Siberia and the polar North set off a crisis with a prolonged strike, though at the congress in Donetsk the miners said they doubt that another strike is imminent.

In a telegram to the Supreme Soviet in Moscow, the miners declared that "the government of the U.S.S.R. does not have our trust. We call on workers in other industries to sever their connections to the government."

The miners were especially critical of a plan for economic reform drawn up by Ryzhkov and endorsed by Gorbachev. For the past year, miners in Donetsk, Sakhalin Island in the Far East, Kemerovo in Siberia and other areas have said that they felt betrayed by the government's failure to fulfill the promises it made last summer of increased salaries, food supplies and other benefits.

In Donetsk, the miners cheered two American labor leaders who attended the congress, Richard Wilson of the AFL-CIO and John Banovic of the United Mine Workers union. Wilson told the miners, "A free society requires independent trade unions, requires the right of association free of government and party control. It requires that workers make their own decisions."

Under Bolshevik ideology, labor unions have been part of the Communist Party apparatus and identical with management. Vladimir Lenin, founder of the Soviet state, once called Western-style, independent unions "narrow-minded, selfish, case-hardened, covetous and petty bourgeois."

Just what sort of independent union the miners will establish is unclear. They could take control of the union organizations that have been in place for decades or they could transform the strike committees created last summer into independent unions. In some mining cities, such as Karaganda in the republic of Kazakhstan, strike committees have become more powerful than the local government and Communist Party leaderships. In the northern city of Vorkuta, especially, miners have called for the rise of a politically active trade union modeled on Solidarity in Poland.

The workers are expected to hammer out the details of the new union at a congress here in August.

Last summer's strike was so severe and cost the government so many rubles, that President Mikhail Gorbachev had to go on television and appeal for the miners to return to work. But a strike this year, miner Alexander Kolomentsev told the Associated Press in Donetsk, "would give us nothing." He said the strike last July "woke people up," but now the important next step is for the representatives at the congress to go back to their mines and register workers for an independent union.

Since last summer, other groups of dissatisfied workers, including railway workers in Leningrad and oil drillers in the western Siberian city of Tyumen, have threatened strikes but then acceded to appeals from the government.

Despite the Supreme Soviet's vote to delay a decision on raising bread prices, it is clear that any future reform and transformation to a market economy will involve increases in inflation and unemployment. Polls have shown that Soviet workers overwhelmingly favor the end results of a market economy -- greater independence, increased supplies of food and consumer goods -- but are deeply apprehensive about the human and financial costs of a long transition period.

Maslyukov, who heads the state planning commission Gosplan, echoed Gorbachev's position that there "is no turning back from the creation of a market economy." He said he expects the ruble to be fully convertible by 1995. He also confirmed that Moscow would partially restore supplies of natural gas to Lithuania on Saturday, the first sign that the two-month-long economic blockade of the republic would ease.

But as the miners give one more sign of a "revolution from below" unleashed by Gorbachev's policies of openness and pluralism, key party conservatives are showing anxiety about what they see as a lack of stability and discipline in Soviet society.

In an unusually harsh attack on the policies of the leadership, the Politburo's leading conservative, Yegor Ligachev, said Gorbachev was guilty of making "concession after concession" that could lead to the breakup of the Communist Party and the state.

The government newspaper Izvestia said Ligachev told a congress of Soviet peasants that he would "carry to the end his political battle at this dangerous moment . . . . He considers the government's current line responsible for leading to the disintegration of the {Soviet} federation."