African National Congress deputy president Nelson Mandela accomplished his primary goal during his four-day stay in Washington last week -- ensuring U.S. economic sanctions will not be lifted any time soon against the minority white government of South Africa.

Although his remarks supporting Moammar Gadhafi, Fidel Castro and Yasser Arafat sparked substantial criticism, Mandela's pledges of a mixed economy and a major role for private investment in a democratic South Africa assuaged some concerns about the ANC's support for Marxism, widespread nationalization of industry and income redistribution.

But Mandela made little immediate progress in obtaining U.S. aid for the ANC or for housing ANC political prisoners and the more than 20,000 exiles expected to return to South Africa.

Congress has approved $10 million in aid to groups promoting democratic institutions in South Africa, but such groups must renounce violence or agree to a suspension of violence while negotiations occur -- something Mandela, much to the administration's displeasure, refused to do.

However, Mandela agreed to announce a "cessation of hostilities" once remaining obstacles to full talks with the government of President Frederik W. de Klerk are overcome.

That could be enough to qualify the ANC for assistance, Assistant Secretary of State Herman J. Cohen said.

"We thought Mandela came with very good news," Cohen said. "He told us that they are very close to an agreement on talks {with the government}. The evolution of his views on economic policy was very favorable, much more pragmatic and much less ideological."

Cohen said Mandela told the administration that "the most important element in the future economic system of South Africa is the private sector. We couldn't ask for more than that."

But Secretary of State James A. Baker III also turned down Mandela's request for housing assistance for the exiles, according to one official, because U.S. law forbids federal assistance for segregated housing.

Although he failed to secure U.S. aid commitments, Mandela's triumphant tour and the extraordinary force of his personality appear to have energized his supporters and scuttled any thought of lifting sanctions.

"Prior to his arrival, some individuals in the administration were talking about lifting sanctions as a way of reinforcing de Klerk," said Rep. Howard E. Wolpe (D-Mich.), chairman of the House Foreign Affairs subcommittee on Africa. Wolpe and other lawmakers called Mandela's address to Congress an "extraordinary" performance. "I have seen a lot of joint sessions," Wolpe said, "and none where my colleagues responded more enthusiastically. They have a deeper respect now for the kind of leadership he is providing."

Wolpe said that, as a result of Mandela's visit, there was "a growing sensitivity of the need to apply the same standard of analysis to South African sanctions as that applied to Poland as it moved toward democracy. We applauded but we refused to lift sanctions entirely until democracy was irreversible. We took our lead from Walesa, not Jaruzelski."

Rep. Jim Leach (R-Iowa) said Mandela "did his cause an enormous quantity of good, presenting himself in the philosophical tradition of Jefferson and Martin Luther King."

Mandela's speech to Congress, Leach said, was "exceedingly reassuring" and "gave greater credence to his assurances of protection for property rights."

But some members of Congress were upset by Mandela's support for Marxists and the Palestine Liberation Organization and by his refusal to renounce violence.

Rep. William S. Broomfield (R-Mich.), ranking Republican on the House Foreign Affairs Committee, said after the speech that he was impressed by Mandela's "eloquence and by his determined resistance for so long to the persecution of his people."

Still, Broomfield said: "Mandela has been given plenty of opportunities to renounce violence. He has not. Nor has he renounced his lifelong commitment to Marxism. I had hoped Mr. Mandela would ease some of the fears we have had about his tactics and alliances in this speech before Congress. He has not, and I, for one, was very disappointed."

But Sen. David L. Boren (Okla.) a key conservative Democrat, said that while "there are some strong disagreements" about Mandela's comments on Gadhafi and others, "I believe that he left a favorable and lasting impression with Congress by his sincere desire to establish a nonracial democracy in South Africa . . . without recrimination for past injustices."

Boren said that Mandela, in a number of appearances, "made particular progress . . . by making it clear that he understands he will need large increases in private investment in the South African economy in the future, and that to attract outside investment, he must allow for a strong element of free enterprise. . . . "