President Bush will not accept a budget agreement that raises income tax rates, Senate Minority Leader Robert J. Dole (R-Kan.) said yesterday, despite assurances from the president on Friday that all issues were still on the table.

Dole made explicit what many Republicans believe is Bush's tacit bottom-line position in the budget negotiations, but it appeared to throw up a major roadblock to a possible trade-off, one that would give Bush his long-sought cut in the capital gains tax in return for a Democratic goal of increasing tax rates on the wealthiest Americans, who now are taxed at a rate below some Americans who earn less.

"He's not going to raise personal income taxes," Dole said on ABC's "This Week With David Brinkley." "I've heard no one in the White House say it {Bush's statement on taxes} means raising tax rates," he added.

The issue of income tax rates has been at the center of the Republican revolt all week, with 90 House Republicans signing a letter to Bush saying they would not vote for a package that included such a provision. There were reports that administration officials, seeking to calm their own forces, indicated privately they would not accept higher rates in a final agreement.

Bush said at his Friday news conference that there are "no preconditions and everything's on the table" in the negotiations.

Bush was asked about reports that the administration might be willing to accept higher rates on the wealthiest Americans in return for a cut in capital gains taxes. "I'm not sure your dope is correct," Bush replied, adding, "I just don't want to violate this concept of confidentiality while we're in the negotiating stage. . . . But I wouldn't put too much trust in that one."

Senate Majority Leader George J. Mitchell (D-Maine), speaking on CBS's "Face the Nation," said that despite Bush's shift on the issue of taxes last week, budget negotiators still face a daunting task in reaching an agreement that would reduce the federal deficit by $500 billion to $600 billion over the next five years, including $50 billion to $60 billion in fiscal 1991.

Pointing to the Republican rebellion against Bush's decision to break his 1988 campaign pledge of "no new taxes," Mitchell said he and other Democrats who met with Bush last Tuesday told the president he must deliver half the Republicans in both the House and Senate when the package goes to Congress for a vote. "That's a remaining huge obstacle to success," Mitchell said.

More than 100 House Democrats wrote House Speaker Thomas S. Foley (D-Wash.) last week and said any tax increases must be aimed at wealthy Americans, not the middle class.

Dole said if the Democrats insist on raising income tax rates, Bush will balk and "there won't be a package" to vote on.

Unless Congress voted to ease the mandatory budget targets set under the Gramm-Rudman-Hollings deficit-reduction act, that would mean automatic across-the-board cuts of nearly $100 billion, based on current deficit projections of $159 billion.

Sen. Daniel Patrick Moynihan (D-N.Y.) said Democrats were prepared to see that occur, despite warnings from the administration and private economists that it could severely damage the economy. "He's heading for a crisis," Moynihan said of Bush.

Meanwhile, operatives from both parties debated the fallout over Bush's tax decision.

"There's clearly a political gun on the table," said Harrison Hickman, a Democratic pollster. "But it's not clear who's going to get shot."

Democrats face their own set of difficult choices in the weeks ahead as they argue over which favorite domestic programs they are willing to cut. New York Gov. Mario M. Cuomo (D) showed the Democrats' uneasiness when, on NBC's "Meet the Press," he refused to cite a single domestic program he would recommend for cuts.

Edward J. Rollins, co-chairman of the National Republican Congressional Committee and an opponent of Bush's decision to break his pledge, attempted to put the best face on the political impact on Republicans.

"The strength of the Republican Party over the last 10 years has been in direct proportion to the strength of the president," he said, adding that the strength of the economy has been a major factor, "so obviously if this succeeds and the president stays as strong as he is today, the party will do just fine."