PARIS, SEPT. 7 -- The 12 European Community nations today decided to send a $2 billion emergency aid package to Turkey, Jordan and Egypt to help overcome the economic devastation those countries have suffered because of United Nations trade sanctions against Iraq.

But despite increasingly strident calls by the U.S. Congress for greater support in sharing the expense of the massive American deployment to defend Saudi Arabia and other Persian Gulf states, the European nations refused to offer any financial contributions to help maintain the more than 100,000 U.S. troops now deployed in the region.

The EC's continuing reluctance to subsidize the U.S. military presence in the gulf -- now estimated to cost $1 billion a month -- and to dispatch ground forces to the desert front threatens to erode the solidarity shown by U.S. and European governments since Iraq invaded Kuwait five weeks ago.

Italy's Gianni de Michelis, who chaired today's meeting in Rome of the 12 EC foreign ministers, said later, "We want to contribute to the burden-sharing in an independent and direct manner and not to the expenses of a separate country, even though it is an ally." De Michelis said the $2 billion that the EC countries will provide over the next 15 months to the countries hurt most by the trade embargo against Iraq and occupied Kuwait will help those nations sustain the boycott and "relieves the United States of an effort in this area."

Some European officials said they expected much bigger contributions from wealthy gulf sheikdoms, notably Saudi Arabia and the exiled Kuwaiti ruling family, to cover the remainder of the $9 billion in lost revenues that have caused serious hardship for the economies of Egypt, Jordan and Turkey.

Saudi Arabia's King Fahd told Secretary of State James A. Baker III on Thursday that his kingdom would pay the cost of the U.S. military presence and help ease the embargo's effect on other Arab nations. Today Kuwait's emir, Sheik Jabir Ahmed Sabah, told Baker that his exiled government would "give whatever is necessary" to help bankroll the U.S. force.

Several European nations have responded positively to U.S. appeals for the loan of ships and aircraft to transport troops and equipment to the gulf. Britain, Italy and Portugal have offered some ships, and France and Germany are willing to provide cargo planes and some roll-on, roll-off vessels, according to French and German sources involved in the arrangements.

But officials said the question of who will pay for the ships has still not been resolved. The Bush administration believes such costs should be borne by the allies as part of their responsibilities in coping with the gulf crisis, but some European governments clearly expect to receive some Saudi assistance. Officials in Paris and Bonn said that given Thursday's Saudi offer to the United States, they see no reason why the operating expenses of European vessels could not be covered.

In response to U.S. commentators who have said that the blood of American soldiers may be shed to ensure the uninterrupted flow of oil that fuels European prosperity, European diplomats have contended that neither the Bush administration nor the Saudi government has formally requested that European ground forces be sent to the region.

But even if such a request were made, many allied governments have deep reservations about committing their troops to a U.S.-led multinational force because they would lose control over their involvement in any conflict.

France and Britain, which have dispatched the West's largest air and naval contingents to the gulf after the United States, have refused to place their forces under U.S. command. Governments in both countries have insisted that their forces in the region will only take orders from their own officers.

French President Francois Mitterrand said Thursday that French troops would be sent into battle only in the case of further aggression by Iraq. He ruled out their participation in any offensive strike by U.S. forces, saying that French military involvement will be guided strictly by international law, as stipulated by United Nations Security Council resolutions. President Bush has said that U.S. troops are playing a strictly defensive role in the region.

The French have increased their presence to more than 4,000 men aboard 14 vessels, including the aircraft carrier Clemenceau. Britain has sent four warships to the region, one squadron of Tornado jet fighters each to Saudi Arabia and Bahrain, a Jaguar fighter squadron to Oman and a surface-to-air missile unit to Bahrain. But despite Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher's promise to send reinforcements soon, British forces amount to little more than 2,000 men.

{In Brussels, the United States pressed its NATO allies Friday to provide more ships and planes to ferry supplies for U.S. forces in the Persian Gulf, but said it did not expect them to contribute more ground troops, the Reuter news agency reported.}