Voters in the West weren't angry enough to throw out many incumbents but they demonstrated anti-government sentiment in other ways: Initiatives limiting the terms of elected officials were approved in Colorado and California and Arizona voters overwhelmingly rejected a proposed pay raise for legislators. In Alaska, Walter J. Hickel, a longtime Republican, ran successfully as an independent for governor, citing the "anti-government feeling out there."
Still, western states returned to office five governors, four U.S. senators and nearly all of their U.S. representatives. Except for the single biggest prize in Tuesday's voting -- the governorship of California, which went to Republican Pete Wilson -- western voters followed their pattern of voting mostly Democratic in state and congressional elections even though they generally support Republicans for president.ALASKA
Voters sent Ted Stevens (R) back to the Senate by a wide margin but threw a scare into their only representative, Don Young (R), and again thwarted the gubernatorial ambition of state Sen. Arliss Sturgulewski (R). Former governor Hickel, 71, running on a third-party ticket, won the governorship with a plurality, 39 percent of the vote.
Sturgulewski defeated Hickel -- the same man President Richard M. Nixon fired in 1970 as secretary of the interior -- in the 1986 GOP primary only to lose to Democrat Steve Cowper. Cowper's retirement threw the governorship up for grabs. This time Sturgulewski was the Republican nominee in the race against Democrat Tony Knowles but Hickel, who was twice unsuccessful in write-in campaigns, ignored White House pleas to stay out of the race and beat them both. Knowles finished second, Sturgulewski third.
Stevens defeated gadfly Michael Beasley by 2 to 1, but the abrasive Young -- an outspoken supporter of oil, timber and development interests -- had to fight off a tough challenge from John S. Devens (D), who was mayor of Valdez at the time of the Exxon Valdez oil spill and became a familiar face on television talking about the disaster's impact on the state. Young, reelected with 62 percent of the vote in 1988, won this time with 51 percent.
Democrats picked up two seats in the state Senate to equal Republican strength at 10 members each and retained control of the state House of Representatives.
Voters overturned the legalization of possession of up to four ounces of marijuana. Alaska has been the only state where such possession was legal. ARIZONA
Confusion reigns in Arizona, where a runoff election is apparently going to be necessary to determine who succeeds Gov. Rose Mofford (D). The process could take months, during which time Mofford would stay on as caretaker.
With tabulation nearly complete, neither Fife Symington (R), a millionaire developer, nor Terry Goddard (D), the mayor of Phoenix, had the 50 percent required to take office without a runoff. Symington led by about 3,600 votes out of more than 1 million cast. Goddard was a heavy early favorite, but Symington, a political novice, hammered away at the tax issue and used ads from former senator Barry Goldwater and Ronald Reagan supporting him to close the gap late in the campaign.
An amendment to the state constitution requires the runoff, but the legislature has enacted neither a timetable nor procedures. State officials were quoted as saying it could take months to sort out the situation.
All of the state's U.S. House members were reelected easily, including Rep. Morris K. Udall (D), chairman of the House Interior Committee, who was running for the last time. Suffering from Parkinson's disease, Udall plans to retire after the forthcoming term.
Despite a threat to the state's economy from lost tourist and convention business, the voters rejected two measures that would have created a state holiday in memory of the Rev. Martin Luther King Jr. Arizona is one of three states that do not observe a holiday honoring the slain civil rights leader. The National Football League is expected to move the 1993 Super Bowl game out of Arizona because of the vote, and other groups are likely to boycott the state. CALIFORNIA
The nation's most carefully watched electoral battle went down to the wire, with Sen. Pete Wilson (R) winning the governor's office in a tight contest with his Democratic rival, former San Francisco mayor Dianne Feinstein.
"We came close but it wasn't enough," said Feinstein, who conceded yesterday.
The state handed a stinging defeat to the sweeping environmental initiative known as "Big Green," with 63 percent of the voters rejecting the measure that would have limited agricultural and industrial pollutants.
An initiative that would impose a lifetime limit of six years in office for state Assembly members and eight years for state senators and most other statewide elected officials was approved with 52 percent of the vote.
Of the state's 45 House members, 40 incumbents were retained.
Among those turned out of office were Rep. Charles Pashayan Jr. (R), who suffered from publicity about his contributions from the savings and loan industry, by Calvin Dooley (D), a former state Senate aide, who won 55 percent of the vote.
The race for the open seat created by the retirement of Rep. Augustus F. Hawkins (D) was won by state Rep. Maxine Waters (D), who, with 80 percent of the vote, overwhelmed her opponent, Bill DeWitt (R).
In three California districts, races were too close to call before absentee ballots were counted, state election officials said.
They included the contest for the open seat created by the retirement of Rep. Norman D. Shumway (R), where state Sen. John T. Doolittle (R) led Patricia Malberg (D) 51 to 49 percent.
Also, in the 44th district, Rep. Jim Bates (D), who was disciplined by the House for sexual harassment, trailed Randy "Duke" Cunningham (R), a former Navy pilot, 46 to 45 percent.
And in the 1st district, Rep. Douglas H. Bosco (D), who was also tied to the savings and loan industry, trailed Frank Riggs (R), a developer, 43 to 42 percent. COLORADO
Gov. Roy Romer (D), who faced weak competition from challenger John Andrews (R), easily held onto his office with 63 percent of the vote. Andrews, a political newcomer and founder of a conservative think tank, had trailed Romer throughout the campaign, despite the sluggish economy that has beset this Rocky Mountain state.
In the race to replace retiring two-term Sen. William L. Armstrong (R), Rep. Hank Brown (R) of Greeley captured 57 percent of the vote over Josie Heath (D), a former Boulder County commissioner. Brown, the Republicans' choice and Armstrong's hand-picked successor, had enjoyed a fund-raising advantage and the reputation of a mainstream conservative. Heath, on the other hand, had been labeled a liberal and ridiculed by Brown for her proposal to cut defense spending in half.
The state's incumbents in the House retained their seats, and the opening in the 4th district created by Brown's movement to the Senate was filled by Wayne Allard (R), a veterinarian, who drew 54 percent of the vote, defeating state Rep. Richard R. Bond (D).
While the state did not appear eager to throw out its incumbents, it was ready to limit their terms in office. Voters approved an amendment to the state constitution that would impose a 12-year limit on U.S. Senate and House seats.
State officeholders would be limited to eight consecutive years. HAWAII
Gov. John D. Waihee III (D) retained his office in this strong Democratic state, gaining 61 percent of the vote over Fred Hemmings (R).
The more interesting race was for the Senate seat occupied by Daniel K. Akaka (D), who overcame a serious challenge from Rep. Patricia F. Saiki (R) with 54 percent of the vote.
Akaka, who had served seven terms in the House until he was appointed to the Senate last April after the death of Spark M. Matsunaga, could have been considered a favorite in a state that has never defeated an incumbent member of Congress. But Saiki, a moderate who won passage of an equal rights amendment to the state constitution, brought solid support from the Japanese-American community. The race was considered too close to call.
The state's two House seats went to Democrats, with Rep. Patsy Mink holding on to the office vacated by Akaka, which she had won in a September special election. Mink drew 68 percent of the vote over challenger Andrew Poepoe (R).
Neil Abercrombie, a member of the Honolulu City Council and former state legislator, defeated state House Republican Leader Mike Liu, with 61 percent of the vote. IDAHO
Democrat Cecil D. Andrus, who by 1994 will have served as governor for 16 of the past 24 years, waltzed through his reelection bid with 67 percent of the vote, defeating state Senate Majority Leader Roger Fairchild (R). As of last night, 93 to 95 percent of the Idaho vote had been counted.
The retirement of Sen. James A. McClure (R) might have opened a door for Democrats to gain a Senate seat, but Rep. Larry E. Craig (R) moved easily into office with 61 percent of the vote. Craig, who had waged a smooth campaign, defeated lesser known Ron Twilegar (D), a former state legislator and Boise City Council member.
Craig's election to the seat held by Republicans for 40 years was won on a conservative message that promised to limit taxes and spending, boost defense and take a hard line on crime.
"The legitimate role of the federal government should be limited," Craig said through the campaign.
The race for the House seat vacated by Craig was much tighter, with Larry LaRocco, a Boise stockbroker, becoming the first Democrat to win the district in 26 years. LaRocco, who became known after his successful efforts to amend the state constitution to permit a state lottery, won 53 percent of the vote over state Sen. C.A. "Skip" Smyser (R).
In the state's 2nd district, Rep. Richard H. Stallings (D) easily defeated Sean McDevitt (R). MONTANA
The Big Sky state is expected to lose one of its two seats in the House as a result of reapportionment after the 1990 census, and Tuesday's voting set up an anticipated 1992 showdown between the two current representatives. Pat Williams (D) and Ron Marlenee (R) breezed to reelection with more than 60 percent of the vote each.
Sen. Max Baucus (D) ran hard for more than a year to ensure his election to a third term, and the effort paid off with an easy victory over Lt. Gov. Allen C. Kolstad (R), who accepted the GOP nomination only after other prospective challengers had rejected it. Baucus got 70 percent of the vote.
The big news in Montana was in the state Senate, where the Democrats took control with a gain of six seats. The Democrats also solidified their hold on the state House of Representatives, adding 10 seats. That may complicate life for Gov. Stan Stephens (R), whose first term has been rocky and is now thought to be ripe for a strong Democratic challenge in 1992 -- perhaps by Williams. NEVADA
Rep. Barbara F. Vucanovich (R) brushed aside challenger Jane Wisdom (D), who had raised eyebrows by calling on Vucanovich to "stay at home and tend to her knitting." But Vucanovich's 63 to 37 percent victory was one of the few bright spots for the GOP on what was otherwise a good day for Democrats.
The state's other representative, James H. Bilbray (D), had no trouble holding his seat, capturing 64 percent of the vote against Bob Dickinson (R).
Acting Gov. Robert J. Miller (D), who has gained wide popularity with his dogged opposition to the Department of Energy's efforts to put a nuclear waste repository in the state, won a full term, trouncing Jim Gallaway (R) by more than 2 to 1. Issues in the race included abortion and legalized marijuana, but the outcome was never considered to be in doubt.
The Democrats lost eight seats in the state House but retained a majority and appeared to have overcome a seven-seat deficit to take control of the state Senate. NEW MEXICO
Voters opted for the familiar in every contest, sending Sen. Pete V. Domenici (R) and all three representatives back to Congress, strengthening Democratic control of the legislature and bringing back Bruce King (D) for a return engagement as governor.
King was elected governor in 1970 and 1978 and on Tuesday won 54 percent of the vote against Frank Bond (R).
Domenici won in a 3 to 1 landslide over state Sen. Tom Benavides (D). OREGON
Sen. Mark O. Hatfield (R) survived. The state's only nuclear power plant survived. But Rep. Denny Smith (R) did not.
Smith was ousted by Mike Kopetski (D), whom he edged two years ago by 707 votes. Not even charges that Kopetski was "cozying up to Saddam Hussein" by advocating a peaceful solution to the Persian Gulf crisis could save Smith after he was targeted by environmental and abortion-rights groups. Weakened by revelations of his ties to several collapsed savings and loans, Smith lost 55 to 45 percent.
The state's four other representatives easily won reelection. Republicans picked up four seats to gain a majority in the state House of Representatives, but Democrats retained control of the state Senate.
Hatfield, a moderate who trailed early and faced the loss of his seat after 24 years, rallied after running his first negative campaign ads to turn back Harry Lonsdale (D), 54 to 46 percent.
The Democrats retained the governorship, vacated by the retiring Neil Goldschmidt. Secretary of State Barbara Roberts got only 46 percent of the vote, but it was enough to win as Attorney General Dave Frohnmayer (R) and antiabortion third-party candidate Al Mobley split the rest.
Oregon voters rejected for the second time a ballot proposition that would have forced the closing of Portland General Electric Co.'s Trojan nuclear power plant. The utility and the nuclear industry spent a reported $3 million to oppose the initiative, which failed, 59 to 41 percent. UTAH
The biggest surprise in this predominantly Republican state was the upset victory in the 3rd district of Provo tax lawyer Bill Orton (D) over Karl Snow (R), a former state senator and heir apparent to the seat vacated by the retirement of Rep. Howard C. Nielson (R). Orton's victory means Utah will have more than one Democrat in the House for the first time in 16 years.
Orton drew 62 percent of the vote in what is considered one of the most Republican House districts in the country. He benefited from a bitter GOP primary that prompted many Republicans to cross over and support Orton, who at times was trailing by as much as 30 percentage points in preelection polls.
"The pollsters were wrong," Orton said yesterday. "This really wasn't a question of party politics. It wasn't Democrat versus Republican."
Orton, who despite his party affiliation supports a balanced-budget amendment and opposes abortion rights, exploited his conservative positions to overwhelm Snow, a Brigham Young University professor and administrator. Snow was perceived as a moderate, in part because he supported higher taxes for education.
In the 2nd district, Rep. Wayne Owens (D) won 59 percent of the vote to repel a serious challenge from Genevieve Atwood (R), a former state geologist who also served in the legislature. Owens, like Orton, emphasizes his independence from party positions, citing his opposition to gun control and support for a balanced-budget amendment.
Rep. James V. Hansen (R) won 54 percent of the vote in the 1st district to defeat Kenley Brunsdale (D). WASHINGTON
Voters returned to office incumbents in each of their eight House districts, with the most attention focused on the 3rd district seat held by freshman Rep. Jolene Unsoeld (D), who faced a serious challenge from accountant Bob Williams (R), a former state representative.
Unsoeld drew 54 percent of the vote, but only after a bitter campaign in which she was criticized for her support of policies that would protect the northern spotted owl but sacrifice logging jobs. But Unsoeld, who won her seat in 1988 with the smallest margin in any House election in the country, was also pilloried for opposing restrictions on semiautomatic assault rifles and accepting a $5,000 contribution from the National Rifle Association.
Unsoeld was considered an underdog but had enjoyed the visible support of House Speaker Thomas S. Foley (D-Wash.) and several Hollywood actors, while Williams, who labeled Unsoeld a typical liberal, got campaign help from Vice President Quayle and several others in the Bush administration.
Still in question is whether control of the state Senate will switch to Democrats, who were leading by one seat yesterday. But state officials said the outcome will have to wait until absentee ballots are counted over the next several weeks. The state House retained its sizable Democratic majority. WYOMING
Sen. Alan K. Simpson (R), who faced weak opposition from college student Kathy Helling (D), polled 64 percent of the vote.
Gov. Mike Sullivan (D) won a similarly comfortable victory, gaining 65 percent of the vote over Mary Mead (R), a rancher and daughter of former governor and senator Clifford P. Hansen (R).
The state's sole House seat also will remain in the hands of the incumbent, Craig Thomas (R), who was sent to Congress in a special election to fill the seat vacated by Richard B. Cheney when he was appointed defense secretary. Thomas won 55 percent of the vote over lawyer Pete Maxfield (D).