JIDDAH, SAUDI ARABIA, NOV.12 -- The crisis sparked by Iraq's invasion of Kuwait has widened the gap between wealthy, oil-producing Arab countries and their poorer neighbors, a disparity that is likely to add to regional instability even after the crisis is defused, according to Arab officials and analysts of the region.

Higher oil prices have brought windfall profits to the Persian Gulf states, some of which have already doubled their income over last year. But other Arab countries, such as Egypt, Jordan, Syria, Tunisia and Yemen are reeling under heavy economic losses resulting from the Aug. 2 invasion of Kuwait and U.N.-imposed sanctions on Iraq.

Not only have these countries lost trade with Iraq because of the sanctions, they also have suffered steep drops in tourism and the loss of remittances from migrant workers who once worked in Iraq, Kuwait and Saudi Arabia but have returned home.

With Arab diplomacy swirling anew this week with discussion of an Arab emergency summit aimed at resolving the gulf crisis, the split between rich and poor nations is especially striking. The countries most eager for the summit are the poorer ones -- led by the impoverished monarchies, King Hassan II of Morocco and King Hussein of Jordan -- while the rich Arab states of the gulf, led by Saudi Arabia, seem reluctant to attend.

This growing disparity between Middle East "haves" and "have-nots," a long-standing cause of conflict among countries in the region, should be addressed by a new regional economic order once the gulf crisis is over, many Arab and Western observers say. But the deep animosity and political rifts in the Arab world brought on by Iraq's actions have made that task extremely difficult.

"The Arabs will have to look into their own eyes and say, 'Is the gap between the haves and have-nots sustainable?' " said a senior British Foreign Office official.

The contrast between the gulf states' petrodollar prosperity and their neighbors' economic stagnation is as visible on the street as it is in the ledgers of their central banks. Gleaming skyscrapers, expressways and heavily perfumed shopping malls catering to new and abundant wealth are hallmarks of most gulf cities. Gas-guzzling, chauffeured luxury cars abound, and the foreign servants who cook, clean and fill the swimming pools are just part of a huge imported work force needed to keep the gulf economies running.

Many of these expatriate workers are from nearby Arab states where finding employment is a never-ending struggle. In Tunisia, the main boulevard's cafes are crowded with men looking for jobs rather than with tourists in search of charm.

In Egypt, government employees work in dingy, dirty offices that look like stage sets for a 1930s movie. Schools are so crowded that students attend in shifts, and taxicabs are often little more than springs on wheels. In the Syrian capital of Damascus, people stand 20 deep in lines waiting to use the few public phones at the central post office. And were it not for the smuggling of merchandise over mountain roads from Lebanon, shelves in Syrian shops would be half-empty.

In all of these states, governments' promises to provide all their citizens with jobs, affordable housing and a decent education are not being kept -- or believed by their citizens.

" 'Oil envy' is something they are going to have to tackle," observed the British Foreign Office official. "King Hussein is so jealous of those {gulf} sheiks with so much money. That is a driving force for him. Something will have to be done about that."

Saudi Arabia, which has increased its oil production from about 5.8 million to 8 million barrels a day since Iraq invaded Kuwait, will earn $50 billion by the end of this year, almost double its 1989 income, one Riyadh-based Western economist said. If the price of oil remains between $32 and $35 a barrel throughout 1991, Saudi Arabia could earn between $85 billion and $100 billion, he said.

Likewise, the United Arab Emirates, whose central bank has put 1990 oil earnings at $11 billion, could take in $28 billion next year if those prices hold. The price of oil fell slightly more than $2 a barrel to $31.87 today on New York futures markets.

To be sure, Saudi Arabia and other gulf states are using most of their petroleum bonanza to finance the U.S.-led multinational military buildup here and to aid states which have sided with them against Iraq.

They are also coping with a large outflow of capital as skittish investors, fearing a war, have moved their money to outside the Middle East. In August alone, between $4 billion and $5 billion was removed from Saudi banks, one economist estimated.

In addition, if there is a war that destroys Kuwait's or Saudi Arabia's oil facilities, reconstruction costs could run into billions. And many analysts are predicting that oil prices will fall back to near $20 a barrel "probably very quickly after the shooting is over," said Philip Verleger, a visiting fellow at the Washington-based Institute for International Economics.

But even if these factors diminish the optimistic projections for the gulf states' oil revenue next year, long-term oil market trends show a growing demand for gulf oil as other world sources dry up, according to some analysts.

U.S. government experts have projected that the gulf states, which earned around $75 billion last year, could receive nearly $250 billion based on current dollar value calculations in the year 2000.

By contrast, Jordan's central bank Deputy Governor Michel Marto recently said his country has almost run out of foreign exchange reserves, and Crown Prince Hassan predicted Jordan would see a 50 percent drop in its gross national product in 1991.

Jordan, whose economy is closely tied to Iraq's, has suffered huge trade losses during the crisis, and tourism has dried up. Jordanians fleeing Kuwait and Iraq have lost an estimated $8 billion in assets and income, according to Labor Minister Qasim Obeidat. Jordan also spent $55 million to feed refugees from Iraq and Kuwait early after the invasion.

King Hussein's criticism of Saudi Arabia's decision to call in U.S. forces to protect it from Iraq added to his economic woes when Saudi Arabia, in retaliation, cut off oil shipments to Jordan. The Saudis, along with other gulf states, also barred Jordanian goods from their territory.

Egypt, which has had to absorb nearly a quarter of a million workers returning from Kuwait and Iraq since the crisis began, has also been hit hard. Officials there have estimated the crisis will cost Egypt $4 billion.

Unlike Jordan, however, the blow to Egypt's economy has been cushioned by substantial aid from gulf and Western countries because of its political stand against Iraq and its decision to send troops to join the multinational force. The United States is canceling Egypt's $6.7 billion military aid debt.

Some economists argue that Egypt could break even or come out ahead because of the aid and debt relief. But even if that turns out to be true, most of the aid is going directly into Egyptian government coffers. How much will reach the pockets of returning workers who lost everything they owned in Kuwait and Iraq is unclear.

Iraqi President Saddam Hussein, who invaded Kuwait because of his country's dire economic troubles, has used Arab resentment against gulf wealth to try to justify his invasion.

Saddam has accused gulf rulers of being a "tyrannical group that uses {its oil wealth} for vice, corruption and aggression" and has sought to portray himself as a leader who "stands with the Arab poor and not with the wealthy Arabs from whose vision God has been absent as long as poverty has been absent from their lives." Arab oil wealth, he has said, should be used to help all Arabs.

Such rhetoric strikes a chord in poorer countries, whose populations were raised to believe that all Arabs are one nation. But in the gulf, which supported Iraq with about $40 billion during its war with Iran, it draws contempt.

Abdullah Quwaiz, deputy secretary general of the six-nation Gulf Cooperation Council, said Saddam is using such notions as an attempt "to give a moral excuse for the invasion of Kuwait. When {Iraq} had oil money, they did not give it to anybody. What did he do? He went and fought with his neighbor and then began extracting more money" from the gulf states.

According to Western diplomats, the Saudi and Kuwaiti governments have been so stung by what they consider the betrayal of Iraq and those Arab countries that sided with Saddam that their aid policies will never be the same.

Saudi Arabia, which has given out $60 billion in economic assistance to other countries in the past 17 years, is now displaying "a much more cynical attitude to aid," said a senior Western diplomat in Riyadh. "They are going to demand that those who receive their money show their gratitude in concrete ways."