President Bush this week awarded the National Medal of Science and National Medal of Technology to 30 scientists, engineers and mathematicians, calling them "real-life pioneers who press the very limits of their fields."
In addition, the award was given to E.I. du Pont de Nemours & Co. for engineering.
"More and more our nation depends on basic, scientific research to spur economic growth, longer and healthier lives, a more secure world and indeed a safer environment," Bush said at a presentation ceremony in the East Room of the White House.
"If America is to maintain and strengthen our competitive position we must continue not only to create new technologies but learn more effectively to translate those technologies into commercial products."
Bush singled out researchers Baruj Benacerraf, president of Dana-Farber Cancer Institute in Boston, and E. Donnall Thomas, clinical director emeritus of Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center in Seattle, for their work in immunology.
"Scientists like you have helped America understand that AIDs is a disease, not a disgrace," he said. "And scientists like you have taught America to appreciate our responsibility to those who are living with HIV and AIDs. They deserve our compassion. They deserve our care. And they deserve more than a chance. They deserve a cure."
Bush told the scientists Tuesday: "The people we honor today are trailblazers, real-life pioneers who press the very limits of their fields."
Award recipients were chosen by the presidential Committee on the National Medal of Science, based on nominees' achievements in their fields and how they affected development of scientific thought.
In addition to Benacerraf and Thomas, the award winners in science were:
Elkan R. Blout, dean of faculties, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston.
Herbert W. Boyer, professor of biochemistry and biophysics, University of California.
George F. Carrier, T. Jefferson Coolidge professor of applied mathematics emeritus, Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass.
Allan M. Cormack, professor, Tufts University, Medford, Mass.
Mildred S. Dresselhaus, professor, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge.
Karl Folkers, director, Institute for Biomedical Research, the University of Texas, Austin.
Nick Holonyak Jr., professor of electrical and computer engineering, University of Illinois, Urbana.
Leonid Hurwicz, Curtis L. Carlson professor of economics, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis.
Stephen C. Kleene, professor emeritus, University of Wisconsin, Madison.
Daniel E. Koshland Jr., professor of biochemistry, University of California, Berkeley.
Edward B. Lewis, Thomas Hunt Morgan professor of biology emeritus, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena.
John McCarthy, professor of computer science, Stanford University, Stanford, Calif.
Edwin M. McMillan, professor of physics emeritus, University of California, Berkeley.
David G. Nathan, physician in chief, the Children's Hospital, Boston.
Robert V. Pound, professor of physics, Harvard University.
R.D. Revelle, director emeritus, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California, La Jolla.
John D. Roberts, professor of chemistry, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena.
Patrick Suppes, Lucie Stern professor of philosophy, Stanford University.
In addition to Dupont, the 1990 medal recipients for technology were:
John V. Atanasoff, Iowa State University.
Marvin Camras, Illinois Institute of Technology.
Donald Frey, Institute for Illinois.
Fred W. Garry, General Electric.
Wilson Greatbatch, Wilson Greatbatch Ltd.
Jack St. Clair Kilby, Texas Instruments.
John S. Mayo, AT&T Bell Laboratories.
Gordon Moore, Intel.
David B. Pall, Pall Corp.
Chauncey Starr, Electric Power Research Institute.