PARIS, NOV. 25 -- The five permanent members of the U.N. Security Council today hammered out their final draft of a plan to end Cambodia's 11-year civil war, but it was not clear whether the four warring Cambodian factions would formally approve the document.
The 12-page draft, approved after three days of talks by the United States, Britain, France, China and the Soviet Union, provides for a cease-fire, disarmament of the Cambodian factions, temporary U.N. administration of the country and free elections.
The document expands on a peace plan broadly outlined by the permanent council members in New York in August. It calls for U.N. personnel essentially to administer Cambodia during a transitional period leading to free elections.
While providing details on ending the fighting and overseeing a vote, the plan does not spell out how the multibillion-dollar operation would be funded. U.S. diplomats said the U.N. secretary general's office in New York was working on a budget.
Agreement on the plan marks the first time that the Security Council's permanent members have agreed on the details of bringing peace to Cambodia after years of backing different sides in the conflict.
But if it is to succeed, Cambodia's four warring factions -- the Vietnamese-backed government in Phnom Penh and the three guerrilla factions -- must bury their differences and first agree on a Supreme National Council, which is a cornerstone of the draft settlement. The national council is intended to represent Cambodian sovereignty during a transition period before elections and to occupy Cambodia's seat at the United Nations.
Thus far, however, the Cambodian factions have been unable to agree on the leadership of the council, stymieing efforts to move forward with the peace process. In addition, the factions have continued to wage battle. The Khmer Rouge guerrillas were reported to have made military gains during the rainy season that just ended.
"You cannot underestimate the depth of hostility and mutual distrust among the Cambodians themselves," said a Western official at the talks.
France, which cochairs the 19-nation Conference on Cambodia with Indonesia, is aiming to convene a meeting in Paris before the end of the year to adopt the peace plan, but is unlikely to do so if the Cambodians cannot agree on the council leadership.
"The onus is even more on the Cambodians now," said a Western official at the talks. "We've done our work. We have demonstrated by this meeting that the framework provided last August can be translated into a workable document, but before it is being adopted at a formal conference, we need to have a functioning" national council.
Former Cambodian leader Prince Norodom Sihanouk, who heads one guerrilla faction, met here today with Richard Solomon, the U.S. assistant secretary of state who is serving as Washington's representative at the talks. Sihanouk also met with the delegation from China, which has long supported the three-party guerrilla coalition that also includes the Khmer Rouge.
Sihanouk is widely expected to assume the head of the national council, but the Cambodians cannot agree on who will take the secondary post. It is being claimed by both the Cambodian government headed by Hun Sen and the Khmer Rouge, which was responsible for the deaths of more than 1 million Cambodians when it ruled Cambodia for 3 1/2 years in the 1970s.
The plan agreed upon today comprises a main document and five annexes, one creating the United Nations Transitional Authority for Cambodia and the mandate for a civil administration, elections and protection of human rights, a Western official said. According to the document, U.N. officials would replace the Cambodian bureaucracy in ministries that could influence the outcome of elections: foreign affairs, defense, finance, public security and information.
It includes detailed provisions for a cease-fire -- outlining even the location of checkpoints -- and withdrawal of armed forces and a "phased process of return to civilian life." It also provides details on repatriating refugees, lays out principles for a constitution and calls for a U.N. peace-keeping force of unspecified size as well as the immediate deployment of a monitoring force to observe the fighting.