MOSCOW, DEC. 20 -- Following are extracts from the debate in Congress of People's Deputies on Foreign Minister Eduard Shevardnadze's resignation:

Dmitri Likhachev, academician: As the oldest man present, I would like to express my regret and alarm over the present situation caused by the foreign minister's statement. We are all stunned by it. The whole world recognizes the triumphs of Soviet foreign policy . . . . We implore comrade Shevard to reconsider his decision. {Applause}

Fyodor Burlatsky, writer and editor of Literaturnaya Gazeta, proposing a draft resolution on behalf of the radical Inter-Regional Group: The foreign minister's statement confirms the real threat of dictatorship toward which our country is being pushed by reactionary forces. Such a turn of events would mean the dismantling of parliamentary institutions and liquidation of the positive achievements of social reforms carried out in the interest of people. It would mean renouncing the policy of new thinking in our foreign policy and it would spell disaster for perestroika. In the long run it would lead to a new civil war. In this context the Congress of People's Deputies condemns any attempts by a dictator or authoritarian rule from whatever side such a threat may come . . . . Dictatorship will not succeed. I request that this draft resolution be put to a roll-call vote.

Ales Adamovich, filmmaker: Those who have forced our foreign minister to resign calculated very well the volatile temper of this man, his honesty and feeling of dignity, because they knew he is a Georgian . . . . Now I'd like to rebuke comrade Gorbachev. We all remember how {former leader Nikita} Khrushchev was unseated by depriving him of his most staunch allies most committed to reform. By losing such allies as Shevardnadze, you are losing your own strength, your prestige, you are losing face. If this process goes on, the president will soon be surrounded by colonels and generals. They will surround the president, making him a hostage. Gorbachev is the only leader in Soviet history who has not stained his hands with blood and we would all like to remember him as such. But a moment will come when they will instigate a blood bath and later they will wipe their bloodstained hands against your suit and you will be to blame for everything.

Viktor Goldansky, scientist: This is a truly history-making event. I can only compare it with {foreign minister Maxim} Litvinov's resignation in 1939 {followed by the signing of the secret pact with Nazi Germany} . . . . The attacks of the reactionaries have been directed against three people -- Gorbachev, Shevardnadze, and {ideologist Alexander} Yakovlev . . . . Yakovlev has been ousted, Shevardnadze is on his way. Who is next in line -- Gorbachev?

Col. Viktor Alksnis, leader of Soyuz: OK, you can consider me a reactionary, a dark force. I accept these labels. Yes, I am a reactionary. When a baby is thrown into the fire of a burning house, I become a hawk. When a pregnant woman is thrown out of the window of the ninth floor, I become a hawk. When an old man has his skin ripped off his body, I become a hawk. When someone says that perestroika has only benefited society and caused no bloodshed, this is a lie.

Let Comrade Shevardnadze go and visit the shantytowns that have been built on the snow where Soviet troops evacuated from Eastern Europe are now forced to live. Let him look them in the eye. Because it was Shevard who signed the timetable for Soviet withdrawal. Now he says he does not want to send Soviet troops to the gulf. But then how come twice in New York he said Soviet involvement in the gulf was a clear possibility?

Roy Medvedev, historian: I was truly stunned by Shevardnadze's statement. It pained me to hear him speak of the criticism against him, but I must say that of all statesmen who make up the backbone of our leadership, Shevardnadze has been the least criticized. If everyone who sits here in the presidium or in the government declare their resignation with the same ease as Shevard did, {Premier Nikolai} Ryzhkov would have hanged himself long ago, {Russian President Boris} Yeltsin would have shot himself and I can't even imagine what Gorbachev would have done with himself . . . . I cannot entrust the foreign policy of such a great state as ours to a man who has shown weakness at such a crucial time.