Following are the key provisions of resolutions Congress is expected to vote on.
The Democratic leadership proposal sponsored principally by Senate Majority Leader George J. Mitchell (D-Maine) and Sen. Sam Nunn (D-Ga.). Essentially the same as the Hamilton-Gephardt resolution in the House, the resolution says the wisest course is continued use of sanctions and diplomacy. It does not rule out military force but requires President Bush to seek congressional authorization before initiating offensive action against Iraq.
"Resolved . . . that a) the Congress is firmly committed to reversing the brutal and illegal occupation of Kuwait.
"b) The Congress authorizes the use of American military force to enforce the United Nations economic embargo against Iraq; to defend Saudi Arabia from direct Iraqi attack; and to protect American forces in the region.
"c) The Congress believes that continued application of international sanctions and diplomatic efforts to pressure Iraq to leave Kuwait is the wisest course at this time and should be sustained, but does not rule out declaring war or authorizing the use of force at a later time should that be necessary to achieve the goal of forcing Iraqi troops from Kuwait.
"d) The Congress pledges its full and continued support for sustaining the policy of increasing economic and diplomatic pressure against Iraq; for maintaining our military options; and for efforts to increase the military and financial contributions made by allied nations.
"e) The Constitution of the United States vests all power to declare war in the Congress of the United States. Congress will expeditiously consider any future presidential request for a declaration of war or for authority to use military force against Iraq. . . . "
Sponsored principally by Rep. Lee Hamilton (D-Ind.) and House Majority Leader Richard A. Gephardt (D-Mo.), this resolution is virtually identical to the Mitchell-Nunn resolution in the Senate.
Bush prefers this version Bush because it authorizes him to use military force to get Iraq to withdraw from Kuwait after first determining that the United States has used all other peaceful means to achieve that goal. The resolution, sponsored principally by Rep. Stephen J. Solarz (D-N.Y.) and House Minority Leader Robert H. Michel (R-Ill.), authorizes the president to use troops in hostile situations under the War Powers Resolution. A virtually identical resolution is expected to be submitted to the Senate by Minority Leader Robert J. Dole (R-Kan.)
"Resolved . . . The president is authorized, subject to subsection (b), to use United States Armed Forces pursuant to United Nations Security Council Resolution 678 (1990) in order to achieve implementation of Security Council Resolutions 660, 661, 662, 664, 665, 666, 667, 669, 670, 674, and 677.
". . . Before granting the authority granted in subsection (a), the president shall make available to the speaker of the House of Representatives and the president pro tempore of the Senate his determination that 1) the United States has used all appropriate diplomatic and other peaceful means to obtain compliance by Iraq with the United Nations Security Council resolutions cited in subsection (a); and 2) that those efforts have not been and would not be successful in obtaining such compliance.
". . . Consistent with section 8(a) (1) of the War Powers Resolution, the Congress declares that this section is intended to constitute specific statutory authorization within the meaning of section 5(b) of the War Powers Resolution.
". . . Nothing in this resolution supersedes any requirement of the War Powers Resolution.
". . . At least once every 60 days, the president shall submit to Congress a summary on the status of efforts to obtain compliance by Iraq with the resolutions adopted by the United Nations Security Council in response to Iraq's aggression."
Proposed by Reps. Charles E. Bennett (D-Fla.) and Richard J. Durbin (D-Ill.), this resolution asserts Congress's power to declare war but takes no position on whether Bush now should be granted that authority.
"Resolved . . . The Congress finds that the Constitution of the United States vests all power to declare war in the Congress of the United States. Any offensive action taken against Iraq must be explicitly approved by the Congress of the United States before such action may be initiated."