Iraq widened the Persian Gulf War last night by launching missile attacks on Israel and Saudi Arabia.

Seven missiles reportedly landed in Tel Aviv, Haifa and unpopulated areas of Israel, injuring at least seven people and shattering what had been allied euphoria over President Saddam Hussein's initially feeble response to 24 hours of allied bombing in the U.S.-led war to liberate Kuwait.

The Iraqi attack came at 2:15 a.m. Friday local time (7:15 p.m. EST Thursday). U.S. officials, who have long feared that Saddam could split the allied coalition by drawing the Jewish state into the war, immediately sought to restrain the Israelis. Secretary of State James A. Baker III and other presidential advisers rushed to the White House and anxious officials indicated that U.S. warplanes would undertake massive retaliatory attacks, but it was not clear early Friday whether the Israelis would defer to the U.S. request. Journalists in Jerusalem observed heavy flights of Israeli planes passing overhead.

One Scud ground-to-ground missile also was fired into the Dhahran area in eastern Saudi Arabia, site of a large air base from which Saudi and U.S. forces are operating, according to a Pentagon spokesman. The Scud was shot down in the air by a U.S. Patriot air defense missile and "did not land," he said. "The Patriot got it." The attack on Dhahran occurred at approximately 4:40 a.m. Friday Saudi time (8:40 p.m. Thursday EST) and witnesses said they heard a loud explosion, possibly the Patriots either being fired from their canisters or destroying the Scud.

Pentagon officials confirmed that several Scud launchings had been detected in western Iraq, more than 250 miles from Tel Aviv. Despite early reports that one of the warheads contained chemical weapons, all of the missiles are believed to have carried conventional explosives equal to a small bomb. Many Israeli citizens donned gas masks as a precaution.

President Bush was "outraged" by the Scud attacks, according to a White House statement, and condemned what he called "this further aggression by Iraq."

The strike against Israel came as allied warplanes continued to pound Iraqi missile sites, airfields and other targets yesterday. The U.S. government vowed that the destruction would continue without pause until Iraq vacates occupied Kuwait.

Even before the Scud attacks, Bush demanded that Saddam pull his army out "with no concessions and no conditions." White House and State Department spokesmen also rejected a U.S. "pause" in hostilities to give Saddam an opportunity to concede and withdraw.

The Pentagon last night identified Navy Lt. Cmdr. Michael S. Speicher, 33, as the first U.S. combat casualty of the war. He was the victim of an Iraqi surface-to-air missile that destroyed his F/A-18 fighter over Iraq. The Pentagon said he had been killed in action, but his commanding officer aboard the USS Saratoga made the decision to classify him as missing-in-action. NBC News reported he was from Jacksonville, Fla., and was married with two children.

In explaining the administration's hardline stance, White House spokesman Marlin Fitzwater said, "We don't think there is any need for a pause for Saddam to change his mind. All he has to do is surrender and comply with all the United Nations resolutions . . . . All he has to do is lay down his arms." In a later clarification, Fitzwater said the United States does not demand that Iraq literally surrender.

The sobering news of the attack against Israel came at the end of a day that had been filled with encouraging news from the battlefront. Wave after wave of allied bombing runs encountered little Iraqi resistance.

The jubilation of the U.S. government at launching nearly 1,400 air strikes in 24 hours while losing only four allied warplanes was tempered, officials said, by the concern that Saddam may be deliberately avoiding a direct confrontation in hopes of prolonging the war as long as possible. "Riding out" the attacks, one senior official said, may be the Iraqis' "best bet" despite the terrible destruction the country will sustain.

"I'm comfortable that we are able to achieve control of Iraqi air space. That is not to say that the Iraqi air force has been totally destroyed," Gen. Colin L. Powell, chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, told reporters. "We've just begun a campaign. It's going to run for some time."

In a closed briefing, Powell told senators that he believes a ground war will probably still be necessary to drive Iraq from Kuwait, lawmakers said. Senior U.S. commanders believe the air attacks could last for as long as a month before the ground war begins in earnest.

U.S. and allied military commanders had been puzzled by Iraq's desultory response to the raids. Except for considerable antiaircraft gunfire and some surface-to-air missile firings, the only Iraqi response during the first day of combat was a brief salvo of artillery fire at a Saudi oil depot and a few planes sent up to challenge the allied raiders.

The air strikes were believed to have destroyed most of Iraq's fixed ground-to-ground Scud sites, including two in western Iraq. A combination of reconnaissance aircraft and attack bombers had been hunting for other mobile Scuds that threatened Israel and Saudi Arabia, Pentagon sources said.

Iraq is believed to own several dozen launchers and an uncertain number of reloads. The Soviet-made Scuds are "not terribly accurate," Pentagon spokesman Pete Williams said last night and are considered useful mostly as a terror weapon. Iraq is believed to have given some of its missiles longer range by decreasing the size of the warhead and increasing the fuel capacity. Egypt fired Scuds against Israel in the 1973 Yom Kippur War.

Sen. Sam Nunn (D-Ga)., chairman of the Senate Armed Services Committee, last night warned of a danger that Israel's entry into the war could break up the allied coalition, "but I think {that is} less a danger than it would have been 12 hours ago. . . . I think it is very clear to Arab allies that we have overwhelming military power there and that we will prevail."

Israeli ambassador Zalman Shoval said last night that he had conferred with Baker and other high U.S. officials. "Of course Israel reserves the right to respond in any way it would deem fit," Shoval said, merely shrugging when asked whether that option would be exercised.

Senior U.S. officials said last night that Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak had promised Baker not to object if Israel retaliated for a direct attack from Iraq. Mubarak wanted guarantees in return that Israel would not initiate any hostilities. However, Syrian officials made it clear to the secretary of state they would object strenuously to any Israeli involvement in the conflict, even if Israel were provoked.

Earlier in the day, officials preoccupied with the sweeping allied air war being waged against Iraq, had cautioned that until "bomb damage assessments" are completed, they would not know which targets had been destroyed and which would require additional strikes.

About 160 separate targets were hit, including not only military but political sites such as the Baath party headquarters and the defense ministry in Baghdad, Powell and Defense Secretary Richard B. Cheney reportedly told the senators.

Soviet Foreign Minister Alexander Bessmertnykh told the Soviet parliament yesterday that Saddam's palace in Baghdad was destroyed by the bombing, the Reuter news service reported from Moscow. He also said two airports within the city limits of Baghdad were put out of action and a number of industrial enterprises were damaged as were the premises of state radio and television.

Bessmertnykh said the Soviet Union, which had been a major arms supplier to Iraq, would be looking into the reasons for the weak response of Iraq's air defense system, and indirectly criticized Iraq's handling of the equipment. "I think the fact that certain installations in Iraq were hit is not a reflection of a weakness of combat equipment, since ultimately equipment is good when it is in good hands," he said.

Powell said allied forces are "shaping the battlefield" in these early attacks by peeling away the most dangerous Iraqi threats, according to one participant in the congressional briefing. The wide array of targets also suggests that the United States intends to crush much of Iraq's military power in hopes of making the nation less of a threat to its neighbors in the future.

In a public briefing, Powell said that 80 percent of the allied sorties, or missions, effectively reached their targets, with the remainder forced to turn back due to mechanical, targeting and other problems. The 104 Tomahawk cruise missiles -- low-flying drones -- fired in the first 24 hours of combat achieved 80 percent reliability and accuracy, Pentagon sources said.

Allied forces were bracing for counterattacks by Iraqi ground forces in Kuwait. To help forestall such attacks, B-52 bombers flying from the island of Diego Garcia launched strikes at the command headquarters of elite Republican Guard forces, Pentagon sources said.

Allied warplanes yesterday also dropped leaflets, written in Arabic and intended to further demoralize Iraqi troops. Officials declined to specify the contents.

Success in the first day's combat appeared to stiffen allied resolve and also tightened the noose of hostile nations surrounding Iraq. Iranian government sources indicated that Tehran was considering joining the conflict against longtime rival Iraq. Also, the Turkish National Assembly voted overwhelmingly yesterday to allow the United States to use Turkish military bases for direct attacks on Iraq, rather than simply as a refueling way station.

The Turkish vote is considered useful although not critical to the allied war effort. The United States does not expect Turkey to actively enter the war although "it's good for the Iraqi generals to worry about the Turkish threat," one senior Pentagon official said.

In addition to Speicher's aircraft, allied losses included two British Tornadoes and a Kuwaiti A-4, whose pilot reportedly was rescued by Kuwaiti resistance forces.

Four of the French Jaguar bombers that participated in the allied assault were hit with antiaircraft fire and one pilot was slightly wounded, Defense Minister Jean-Pierre Chevenement said yesterday. The French targets included airplane and helicopter shelters, ammunition depots and SAM batteries.

Antiwar fervor continued yesterday with mass demonstrations in New York, San Francisco and Boston that tied up traffic and triggered scuffles between protestors and police. In Washington, demonstrators continued to gather in Lafayette Square across from the White House, although the crowd of 200 yesterday was smaller than some previous protests.

Protests -- mostly small and orderly -- were held on a number of college campuses. The gulf war dominated television and radio talk shows across the nation, as well as informal coffee klatsches and lunchcounter chatter.

After six hours of partisan wrangling over how far to go in praising Bush, the Senate unanimously passed a compromise resolution commending the president and U.S. troops in the Persian Gulf. Sen. Minority Leader Robert J. Dole (R-Kan.) said that "there was a feeling of satisfaction about the punishment inflicted, not on innocent civilians but on strategic targets, a great number of them."

Terrorism concerns continued to mount in the United States and around the world yesterday. Several firebombings and other anti-American protests were reported in India and elsewhere. No injuries and only minor damage was reported in the incidents, State Department officials said.

From the president down, administration officials cautioned against what Bush called "unwarranted optimism" and warned that heavy fighting lies ahead unless Saddam Hussein retreats.

Bush, who was in his office before dawn to track the military action in the gulf, said he was "pleased with the way things have gone" in the initial wave of bombings. "We're determined to finish what we set out to do," the president added before meeting congressional leaders.

Amplifying the theme of caution, Fitzwater told reporters in the morning, "Do not be lulled into thinking, because of the success of this first night's operation that this is over or that it is going to be quick and easy."

A senior official said one of the administration's "major problems right now is not to let expectations get so out of hand on this being over by the weekend because when it's not, it's going to be a hard fall."

Cheney made the same point with a sober warning during a brief Pentagon press conference yesterday morning. "There have been casualties and there are likely to be more casualties," the secretary warned.

Fitzwater later said that the White House does not want to suggest a duration on the conflict "because no one knows." Bush, he said, "does want to, through his own words and through mine, and other ways, let the American people know that this is a very serious situation, that we have very successful so far, but it's a long way from being over."

The president, who was up before dawn and made a brief visit at 5:30 a.m. to the White House press room, spent much of the day in sessions with his advisers monitoring the progress of the battle. He appeared in public only to go to a church service for government leaders at Memorial Chapel at Fort Meyer, Va.

Evangelist Billy Graham, a longtime Bush friend, spent Wednesday night at the White House and spoke at the service. "What's wrong with the human race?" he asked. "Why can't we settle our problems?" He also said there were times "we have to fight for peace."

The Senate's resolution praising Operation Desert Storm was amplified in comments by individual legislators after hearing Cheney and Powell. "People continue to be awed by the skill of our military and the effectiveness of our weapons," Sen. Phil Gramm (R-Tex.) said. "They have worked beyond anybody's expectation and hope. . . . The first day has been a virtual miracle."

Sen. Paul S. Sarbanes (D-Md.), who had argued strenuously against early military action, said, "We've obviously carried out a very effective air strike with a great deal of skill and professionalism."

Staff writers John Lancaster, Barbara Vobejda and Bill McAllister contributed to this report.