Aug. 2: Iraq invades Kuwait. President Bush freezes Iraqi and Kuwaiti assets and bans all trade and financial relations with Iraq. U. N. Security Council condemns the invasion and demands the immediate, unconditional withdrawal of Iraqi forces from Kuwait.
Aug. 3: Americans and Soviets issue joint statement in Moscow condemning Iraq. Arab League issues declaration denouncing invasion, with Jordan, Libya and Palestine Liberation Organization abstaining. Iraq says it will withdraw troops from Kuwait within two days.
Aug. 4: European Community imposes broad sanctions against Iraq.
Aug. 6: U. N. Security Council approves resolution imposing comprehensive trade and financial sanctions against Iraq and Kuwait. Several hundred Westerners, including 28 U.S. nationals, are detained in Kuwait and taken to Baghdad.
Aug. 7: Bush orders U.S. military aircraft and troops to Saudi Arabia to defend it against Iraqi attack in an operation code-named Desert Shield.
Aug. 8: Iraq announces annexation of Kuwait.
Aug. 9: U.N. Security Council declares that Iraq's annexation of Kuwait "has no legal validity and is null and void." Iraq seals its borders, barring departure of all foreigners except diplomatic personnel. About 2,500 Americans are trapped in Kuwait, another 500 in Iraq.
Aug. 10: An an emergency summit in Cairo, Arab leaders vote 12 to 3 to send troops to Saudi Arabia to help defend against possible invasion by Iraqi forces. Iraq orders foreign governments to close their embassies in Kuwait City and move diplomatic functions to Baghdad by Aug. 24.
Aug. 12: Bush administration adopts a policy of "interdiction," including use of force to stop ships attempting to circumvent the U. N. embargo. Iraqi President Saddam Hussein says he would withdraw from Kuwait as part of a settlement of "all issues of occupation," including Israeli withdrawal from the West Bank and Gaza Strip and Syrian pullout from Lebanon.
Aug. 22: Bush authorizes the first call-up of reserves in two decades. The initial mobilization is expected to number about 40,000.
Aug. 23: As deadline for closing embassies in Kuwait nears, the United States and most other Western embassies reduce staffs to minimum and vow to remain open. Oil prices continue to soar to new highs on spot and futures markets, and stock prices post broad losses.
Aug. 25: U. N. Security Council approves resolution that, in effect, authorizes military action to enforce the trade sanctions against Iraq.
Aug. 28: Iraq declares Kuwait to be its 19th province. Saddam says all foreign women and children will be free to leave Iraq and Kuwait.
Sept. 17: Saudi Arabia and the Soviet Union reestablish diplomatic ties after a 52-year break. In response to "very grave illegal acts" by Iraqis who raided Western embassies, 12 European Community governments expel Iraqi military attaches and restrict the movements of other Iraqi diplomats.
Sept. 23: Saddam threatens to attack Saudi oil fields and Israel if Iraq is "strangled" by economic sanctions.
Sept. 25: U. N. Security Council votes to bar all air traffic to and from Iraq and Kuwait save for humanitarian purposes.
Oct. 23: Iraq says it will free all 400 French hostages. Thirty-three Britons fly out with former prime minister Edward Heath. His visit, followed by Japan's Yasuhiro Nakasone and Germany's Willy Brandt, turns Baghdad into what the State Department calls a "hostage bazaar."
Nov. 5: Secretary of State James A. Baker III and Saudi Arabia's King Fahd reach a new military command and control agreement, guaranteeing that American troops will be under the command of American officers if an offensive operation against Iraq is launched.
Nov. 8: Bush orders a new wave of U.S. troops to the Persian Gulf to create an "adequate offensive military option should that be necessary." Pentagon officials say the reinforcements could number 200,000, which would bring the total American deployment to about 430,000.
Nov. 9: Pentagon officials confirm that they have postponed plans to begin rotating any of the U.S. troops already in the gulf in order to keep American forces at maximum strength.
Nov. 19: Iraq says it will pour 250,000 more troops into Kuwait in response to the American buildup, which would bring the Iraqi total to about 680,000.
Nov. 22: Bush spends Thanksgiving Day visiting troops in Saudi Arabia and warns that Iraq's progress in developing nuclear weapons gives the soldiers' mission a sense of urgency.
Nov. 28: Two former joint chiefs of staff, retired Gen. David C. Jones and retired Adm. William J. Crowe Jr., tell Congress that the United States should refrain for now from military action and allow sanctions more time to work.
Nov. 30: Bush invites Iraqi Foreign Minister Tariq Aziz to Washington and offers to send Baker to Baghdad before Jan. 15 to meet Saddam to discuss a possible peaceful solution to the gulf crisis. Easing a four-month siege of the U.S. Embassy in Kuwait, Iraqi troops deliver fruit, vegetables and cigarettes to diplomatic personnel inside the mission.
Dec. 6: Saddam asks Iraq's Parliament to free all foreign hostages.
Dec. 8: Iraq proposes that Baker come to see Saddam on Jan. 12. U.S. officials insist instead that the meeting take place no later than Jan. 3.
Dec. 19: Deputy commander of U.S. forces in the gulf, Lt. Gen. Calvin A.H. Waller, tells reporters that American troops will not be ready to attack Iraq by Jan. 15.
Jan. 4: Aziz agrees to meet Baker in Geneva on Jan. 9. Bush rules out any future meeting between Baker and Saddam in Baghdad.
Jan. 8: Bush asks Congress to approve a resolution authorizing the use of "all necessary means" to drive in Iraq out of Kuwait.
Jan. 9: Baker and Aziz meet in Geneva, but more than six hours of talks fail to break the diplomatic impasse as Iraq shows no sign of buckling to international demands.
Jan. 12: A divided and solemn Congress grants Bush the authority to wage war against Irag. The vote in the Senate is 52 to 47; the House vote is 250 to 183.
Jan. 13: U.N. Secretary General Javier Perez de Cuellar ends talks in Baghdad without any report of progress, saying that "only God knows" if there will be war.
Jan. 14: Perez de Cuellar says he does not "see any reason to have real hope" that war will be averted in the gulf. Iraq's National Assembly calls for a "holy war" to defend the occupation of Kuwait. Bush spends his day in conversations with international leaders and in White House sessions devoted to the gulf crisis.
Jan. 16: The war begins with reports of U.S. aircraft dropping bombs on strategic targets in Iraq and Kuwait.