MOSCOW, FEB. 2 -- The conservative leadership of the Soviet Communist Party, which lost its guaranteed monopoly on power last year, pressed its attack on the besieged Soviet reform movement in speeches and interviews published here today.

Deputy party chief Vladimir Ivashko, Russian Communist Party leader Ivan Polozkov, Vice President Gennady Yanayev and others made it clear at a plenary session of the Central Committee this week that the party views a wide range of nationalists and democratic forces as deceivers and an enemy that must be defeated. They railed at "pseudo-democrats" for trying to create a Western-style economy and political system.

"There can be no talk now about a multi-party system," said Polozkov. "Black-marketeers, ethnic separatists and the heirs of overthrown classes have assembled under the banner of democracy and are declaring anti-communism as their ideology."

Under pressure from democratic forces, the Communist Party gave up its monopoly on power a year ago. Since then, a wide range of political parties has been created and multi-party elections have been held in a number of republics. In Georgia, the Baltic states and Armenia, the Communists are a parliamentary minority, and key figures in other republics, such as Russian leader Boris Yeltsin and the mayors of Moscow and Leningrad, quit the party last summer.

Polozkov's speech, and others like it at the Central Committee session, are implicit attacks on President Mikhail Gorbachev, whom party conservatives blame for letting reforms get out of hand.

Gorbachev, who in recent months clearly has made common cause with conservatives in the army, the KGB and the party, was oddly quiet at the Central Committee meeting. He opened the session Thursday, but did not give the traditional opening report.

Instead, Ivashko, a career party apparatchik from the Ukraine, began the session by declaring that "no political force today except our party can handle this serious task {of remaking Soviet society} using the chance offered by history."

Ivashko called on the party to battle "destructive ideas and actions. Until now, we had not given a real rebuff to them."

One Central Committee member, Oleg Shenin, indicated that he wanted a purge of all remaining liberals who challenge the party line. The committee did censure one of its reformist members, Stanislav Shatalin, an economist and former presidential cabinet member, who has called for the creation of a new opposition party of anti-Leninist, anti-Marxist social democrats.

When Gorbachev came to power in 1985, he declared the party "the initiator of reform" and many hopeful young politicians joined in hopes of playing a role in democratic reform. But as it became clear that the party apparatus would resist with all its power any changes that threatened traditional power and ideology, tens of thousands of members left for new parties or independent work.

The speeches published today in Pravda and Sovietskaya Rossiya indicate that the conservatives' ideal leader is not Gorbachev but rather the late Yuri Andropov, the ex-KGB chief who succeeded Leonid Brezhnev as party leader and called for limited economic reforms and a fight against corruption.

In memoirs now being serialized in the weekly Argumenty i Fakty, Gorbachev's former conservative rival in the party leadership, Yegor Ligachev, lionizes Andropov in a way that clearly is intended as a rebuke of Gorbachev. Andropov was Gorbachev's sponsor and mentor, but the older man, even in his short reign as party leader, clearly did not intend to tolerate the level of dissent and institutional change that Gorbachev later set in motion.

Yanayev said that while it was politically important that Gorbachev hold both the presidency and the party's top leadership post, under a new leader "the ideas and the goals of the party will live on."

Some members of Gorbachev's original team have been alienated by the rightward movement of the party. But Gorbachev, who both needs the party's political backing and still appears to believe in the party as an ideal, has said, "I am a convinced Communist."

Alexander Gelman, a playwright who quit the party and the Central Committee three months ago, said in an interview that Gorbachev has turned to the right "because his genes are still those of a party man. He thinks he is going to be able to use the right wing for the sake of democracy, while the right wing thinks it will use Gorbachev for the sake of killing democracy. I'm afraid that in this game, the right wing has the better chance to win."