A House subcommittee yesterday heard witnesses tell of questionable financial dealings by the former presidential appointee who ran the Christopher Columbus Quincentenary Jubilee Commission, including improper financial relationships with a close friend and a licensing group that used the agency's logo on T-shirts, coffee mugs and other products.

John N. Goudie, the Miami developer who resigned under pressure last December as commission chairman, is scheduled to appear this morning before the House subcommittee on census and population to answer charges that he abused his position and in the process wrecked plans for a national celebration to mark the 500th anniversary of Columbus's arrival in the New World. He has previously declined to comment.

Yesterday a series of witnesses alleged that Goudie and Manuel "Cookie" Gonzalez, a Miami business associate, cajoled and sometimes threatened them over commission business. A General Accounting Office investigator said Gonzalez had received "over $120,000" from the licensing group and had made "undocumented loans" to the former chairman on several occasions.

Another witness, Toledo business executive Anthony Baltes, quoted Gunter Pfitzenmeier, president of a Christopher Columbus licensing firm, as bragging that he had given Goudie a $150,000 "bribe" and that he could "take him out anytime I {Pfitzenmeier} want." Baltes, who organized a group of Ohio investors who put up $500,000 for the licensing operation, said that Pfitzenmeier had told him he used their investment funds for the bribe and claimed he had a canceled check to prove the transaction.

Baltes's charges were the most serious leveled at Goudie during yesterday's four-hour hearing. "What I want to know is why President Reagan would appoint a crook to head such an activity?" Rep. James P. Moran Jr. (D-Va.) demanded. ". . . This is sickening. I kind of hope it doesn't become public because of all the harm it will do to schoolchildren" who are studying Columbus.

Goudie has declined to talk to the subcommittee about his role as head of the 30-member commission, which was given $2 million by Congress and told to raise the other funds it needs from private sources. Subcommittee Chairman Thomas C. Sawyer (D-Ohio) called yesterday's public testimony "startling . . . often bizarre . . . {and} genuinely troubling." He said the witnesses frequently contradicted the testimony Gonzalez had given in a private session about his role in the affair.

"I'm a bit vague because that's how these guys operated -- in the closet, in the shadows," said Edgar B. Mooney Jr., a Shrewsbury, N.J., licensing expert. Mooney was supposed to help the licensing group find businesses to produce products with the Columbus commission's logo, but he said the group's initial contract with the commission was "an obvious attempt to fleece the government." Typically, licensing contracts, such as those created for the Statue of Liberty centennial, give the government a 75 percent commission, not the 15 percent that the Columbus commission got, he said.

"It's a sin what these men have done to this great cause," Mooney said, contending that the government still has time to arrange a major celebration of the size that Congress envisioned.

Several of the witnesses painted Goudie, who has been active in Florida Republican politics, as the imperious czar of the commission's business. He would threaten to unleash Justice Department investigators on uncooperative business ventures and Baltes said Goudie once threatened to kill him.