The political landscape changed on Tuesday, as voters across the country reshaped the Congress, cast ballots for president and weighed in on referenda. A survey appears on this and the following pages.
The industrial Midwest, although virtually swept by Clinton, emerged looking only slightly more Democratic as incumbents, with a few notable exceptions, held on to their seats.
The most closely watched race was in Illinois, where Cook County Recorder of Deeds Carol Moseley Braun (D) became the nation's first female African-American senator.
Despite high hopes, Democrats managed to gain only one Senate seat in the eight-state region, with upstart liberal state Sen. Russell D. Feingold defeating incumbent conservative GOP Sen. Robert. W. Kasten Jr.
They picked up one governorship as Missouri's Lt. Gov. Mel Carnahan (D), emphasizing his abortion rights stand, defeated the state's antiabortion Attorney General William L. Webster (R) for an open post that had been held by Republicans.
But the region proved neither Clinton nor Bush had coattails. Bush won in Indiana, but incumbent Democratic Gov. Evan Bayh swept to a stunning 2 to 1 victory. Indiana's incumbent GOP Sen. Dan Coats won easily as well.
While Clinton won Missouri and Iowa, the Republicans easily held on to their Senate seats in those states.
Incumbency also proved its staying power, even in the face of controversy, as Ohio's Democratic Sen. John Glenn staved off a challenge from the state's lieutenant governor. The House Bank overdraft scandal claimed only two incumbents, Rep. Mary Rose Oakar (D-Ohio), who wrote 213 bad checks, and Rep. Gerry Sikorski (D-Minn.) who had 697 overdrafts.John Goshko; Gary Lee; Al Kamen
Democratic Senate candidate Carol Moseley Braun's early lead seemed in danger of disappearing over mishandling of Medicaid support for her mother's nursing home care, but she recovered and scored an impressive 10-point win over her opponent, Chicago lawyer Richard Williamson.
Illinois, which gave Clinton a wide victory margin, was thought to be home to a large number of endangered incumbents, but most survived, many by huge margins. House Ways and Means Committee Chairman Dan Rostenkowski (D), challenged by an anti-Washington candidate who listed his name as Elias R. "Non-Incumbent" Zenkich, won with 59 percent of the vote. Republican 23-year veteran Rep. Philip M. Crane, expected to face a strong challenge by factory owner Sheila A. Smith (D), sailed through with a 58 percent to 42 percent victory.
Democratic incumbent Rep. John W. Cox Jr., who beat now-Secretary of Labor Lynn Martin in 1990, was ousted handily by Republican lawyer Donald Manzullo in a traditionally Republican district.
Though it is a traditional GOP stronghold that soundly backed President Bush, Indiana handily reelected Democrat Evan Bayh as governor. Taking 63 percent of the vote, Bayh defeated Republican challenger Linley E. Pearson, Indiana's attorney general. At 36, Bayh, son of former U.S. senator Birch Bayh (D-Ind), is the nation's youngest governor.
Apparently riding Bush's coattails, Republican Steve Buyer defeated incumbent Rep. Jim Jontz (D), who was seeking a fourth term in the House. Buyer, who will be one of a handful of new GOP House members, squeaked by with 51 percent of the vote. Rep. Lee H. Hamilton (D) handily batted back a challenge from a GOP antiabortion activist, winning his 15th term.
All other members of the House from Indiana remained unchanged and Sen. Dan Coats (R) won reelection.
Heavy campaigning in the state by Vice President Quayle, an Indiana native, earned Bush 43 percent of the state's votes, to 37 percent for Clinton. Perot garnered 20 percent.
Democrat Pamela Carter was elected to replace Pearson as attorney general, becoming the first black woman to win statewide office.
Iowa voters, who four years ago spurned Bush for Massachusetts Gov. Michael S. Dukakis (D), continued to give him the cold shoulder and turned to Clinton. The Arkansas governor campaigned there twice during the final days and was rewarded with 44 percent of the vote. Bush got 38 percent, and Perot came away with a 19 percent share.
Sen. Charles E. Grassley (R) coasted to a third term over state Sen. Jean Lloyd-Jones (D). Redistricting set up a battle between incumbent Reps. David R. Nagle (D) and Jim Nussle (R) who gained notoriety by putting a paper bag over his head in embarrassment over the House Bank scandal. Nussle eked out a narrow 51 to 49 percent victory. Rep. Jim Ross Lightfoot (R), who had bounced 105 checks at the House Bank, nevertheless held off a strong challenge from Iowa Secretary of State Elaine Baxter (D) by the same 2 percentage point margin.
Though one of the most heavily contested states in the presidential election, Michigan produced few surprises among its 18 races for House and Senate seats. In one of the strongest showings of the day, running counter to Clinton's statewide victory, Republican Peter Hoekstra won 63 percent of the vote in the 2nd Congressional District. Rep. Guy Vander Jagt (R), who has represented part of the newly drawn district since 1966, lost in the primary earlier this year.
In the state's Upper Peninsula, Democrat Bart Stupak routed an attempt by Phil Ruppe, to return to office. Stupak won 55 percent of the vote in the 1st District to become one of the new Democrats in the House.
House Majority Whip David E. Bonior (D) turned back a bid by Republican Douglas Carl to unseat him, winning 55 percent of the vote. Republican Joseph Knollenberg won an open seat in the 11th District, however, defeating Walter Briggs (D) 59 to 41 percent.
Otherwise, from Rep. John D. Dingell (D) to Rep. John Conyers Jr. (D), the state's veteran lawmakers held on to their seats, and the turnout for Clinton was strong.
Minnesota, long regarded as one of the country's most dependable states for the Democrats, stuck with that tradition, giving Clinton 44 percent of the total votes cast. Bush was a distant second with 32 percent. Despite election-eve signs that Perot's strength was eroding, the independent challenger made one of his strongest showings in Minnesota, picking up a 24 percent share.
Clinton benefited from the affinity of Minnesota voters for liberal candidates and causes. He and Perot jointly took 68 percent of the vote, reflecting unease about the economy. The high-tech and food-processing industries in the Twin Cities have suffered from the recession, and the state's dairy and wheat farmers, have long been unhappy about the Bush's administration's attempts to trim agricultural subsidies.
In the most closely watched House race, Rep. Jerry Sikorski (D), who had 697 overdrafts at the House Bank and switched from an antiabortion to an abortion rights stance, was defeated by Rod Grams (R), a former television news anchorman and outspoken abortion foe. In the struggle for the House seat vacated by Rep. Vin Weber, an influential Republican conservative, David Minge (D) squeeked through by a handful of votes over Cal Ludeman (R).
Democrat Mel Carnahan easily won a bid for governor of Missouri, defeating state Attorney General William L. Webster. The victory was aided by a strong statewide showing for Clinton, whose home state of Arkansas lies along Missouri's southern border.
Webster, an outspoken abortion opponent, was dogged by ties to a scandal-ridden injured worker's fund. He gained only 41 percent of the vote, to Carnahan's 59 percent. Carnahan, a 58-year-old career politician with a low-key style, is Missouri's first democratic governor since 1981.
Sen. Christopher S. Bond (R) won reelection after St. Louis County Councilwoman Geri Rothman-Serot's (D) strong bid fizzled. Rothman-Serot at first rode high on the wave of support for female candidates in the "Year of the Woman," but in the end captured only 46 percent of the vote, to Bond's 54 percent.
In House elections, Republican challenger James Talent unseated incumbent Rep. Joan Kelly Horn (D) 51 to 49 percent.
Missouri was one of 14 states to pass term limit laws. Members of the House are limited to four terms, while U.S. senators are allowed two terms under the measure.
Sen. John Glenn (D), who had been thought to be in deep trouble in his closely watched bid for a fourth term, coasted to an easy 10 percentage point victory over challenger Lt. Gov. Michael DeWine (R). The 71-year-old former astronaut carried a narrow lead into the final days of the campaign and was not expected to top 50 percent.
On Tuesday he far outpaced Clinton's 1 percentage point advantage in the state.
Embattled Rep. Mary Rose Oakar (D), who had 213 bad checks at the House Bank and barely survived a seven-candidate primary, was ousted by lawyer Martin R. Hoke, who won 57 percent of the vote.
Democrats picked off veteran GOP Rep. Bob McEwen, who had 166 overdrafts at the House Bank. Democratic challenger Ted Strickland, a psychology professor and three-time candidate, who lost to McEwen in 1980, appealed to anti-incumbent sentiments and squeaked by with a margin of fewer than 5,000 votes.
Despite a last-minute campaign blitz by Bush to make the Badger state a key part of a comback, the Clinton forces kept Wisconsin's 11 electoral votes in the Democratic column. When the see-sawing vote count was over, Clinton had 41 percent, Bush 37 percent and Perot, continuing his strong showing in the upper Midwest, 22 percent. In addition to the presidential race, the state also turned away from the incumbent Republican Sen. Robert W. Kasten Jr., electing state Sen. Russell D. Feingold, little known outside the strongly liberal Madison area.
Feingold, who is Jewish, defeated an opponent strongly backed by American supporters of Israel. Kasten, the ranking minority member of the Senate Appropriations subcommittee that deals with foreign aid, had received almost $143,000 in campaign funds from pro-Israel PACs.
In House races, Rep. Les Aspin (D), chairman of the House Armed Services Committee, confounded reports that he might be in trouble and easily defeated Mark Neumann (R). Rep. Thomas E. Petri (R), with a large number of overdrafts at the House Bank, turned back a challenge by state Rep. Peggy A. Lautenschlager (D).