ALMATY, KAZAKHSTAN, FEB. 7 -- The leader of the vast Central Asian nation of Kazakhstan said today that the United States and the West risk encouraging Russian bullying by providing aid to Moscow while neglecting the other former Soviet republics.

"We {in the other republics} all see that aid is provided only to Russia, and so Russia thinks it can do anything it wants with us," President Nursultan Nazarbayev said in an interview. The West should "emphasize that aid will be given only if Russia follows a democratic path -- and you should stick to this in practice," he added.

Kazakhstan, the second-largest Soviet republic in area after Russia and the world's ninth-largest country, is strategically situated amid Russia, China, Iran and the smaller nations of Central Asia. Nazarbayev, its former Communist leader and now its elected president, will visit Washington next week for talks with President Clinton on bilateral ties and other issues, including Russia's role in the region.

Politicians in the West and in Russia's neighboring countries have expressed concern about what some see as Moscow's growing assertiveness in its relations with its neighbors. That concern grew to alarm for some after Dec. 12, when the ultranationalist party of Vladimir Zhirinovsky scored an unexpected success in Russia's parliamentary elections.

Nazarbayev, a consistent proponent of economic integration within the former Soviet Union and of close ties between his nation and Russia, emphasized today that he is not advising the West to stop helping Russia. He said the peaceful and democratic development of his giant northern neighbor is as essential for Kazakhstan as for the world.

But he warned that U.S. aid, if not properly targeted, could end up "encouraging chauvinism and helping fascism" in Russia. He said Russia recently has become more intrusive in its military doctrine and foreign policy, changes that he said the West should stand up against.

He cited several examples of Russia's increasing assertiveness, including a new military doctrine that claims Russia's interests extend throughout the former Soviet Union and statements by Foreign Minister Andrei Kozyrev that "we will defend ethnic Russians wherever they live," as Nazarbayev paraphrased today.

"The West shouldn't allow this to happen," he said. "It should use its influence." He complained that neither Russia nor the United States has a coherent policy toward the rest of the former Soviet Union.

About two-fifths of Kazakhstan's 17 million people are ethnic Russians, another two-fifths are ethnic Kazakhs, and the remainder are divided among many minorities. Nazarbayev, a Kazakh, angrily rejected Kozyrev's statements as comparable to Nazi claims over ethnic Germans that were used to justify the takeover of Czechoslovakia in 1938-39.

Nazarbayev said Russia also has been using economic clout against its neighbors. Kazakhstan is rich in oil, and a deal with Chevron to develop its Tengiz oil fields represents potentially the largest U.S. investment in the former Soviet Union.

But Kazakhstan relies on a Russian pipeline to export its oil to the West. Recently, Nazarbayev said, Russia has been denying Kazakhstan access to the pipeline "for political goals," with some officials suggesting Russia is pressing for a piece of the Chevron deal.

"There are many such questions," Nazarbayev said. "The West in offering aid should pay attention to these as well. After all, if they don't allow Chevron's oil to pass, this touches on America's interest."

Earlier, in a meeting with a larger group of foreign reporters, Nazarbayev hailed the progress in U.S.-Kazakh relations, noting that both Secretary of State Warren Christopher and Vice President Gore visited here last fall. Western officials have praised Kazakhstan's gradual and relatively peaceful progress toward democracy and the free market, while expressing reservations about alleged discrimination against ethnic Russians and a perceived authoritarian tinge to Nazarbayev's rule.

But Nazarbayev also suggested that the West is missing an opportunity here. He said that Kazakhstan, which agreed early to give up its nuclear weapons and has warmly welcomed Western investment, could be a model for its neighbors. Its success would serve as an example to Russia and a bulwark against Islamic extremism to the south, he said.

"It would be possible to carry out a Marshall Plan for Kazakhstan," he said. "Here you could make a proving ground for democracy and a market economy . . . but unfortunately that's not being done."

Although Kazakhstan has avoided the political turbulence of Russia, its economy is suffering, if anything, more than Russia's. Many factories are idle or nearly so and living standards have dropped sharply.

Kazakhstan, along with Ukraine, Belarus and Russia, was left with nuclear weapons on its soil when the Soviet Union collapsed in December 1991. Unlike Ukraine, Kazakhstan fairly readily agreed to cede the weapons. Nazarbayev said his nation suffered so much from Soviet nuclear policy that it should never harbor nuclear ambitions. The Soviet Union carried out more than 400 nuclear explosions on testing grounds in Kazakhstan, nearly 200 of them above ground or in the atmosphere, and more than 500,000 people are still suffering from the radioactive fallout, he said.