Ex-slave Jean-Jacques Dessalines ousts Haiti's colonial power, France. Becomes second independent nation in Western Hemisphere, preceded by United States.


Island of Hispaniola is divided, with Dominican Republic established on east side.


United States, citing fears of German influence in turbulent Haiti during World War I, sends Marine invasion force.


President Franklin D. Roosevelt orders U.S. troops out of Haiti, visiting Cap-Haitien to affirm Haitian independence and "special relationship" with United States.


Francois "Papa Doc" Duvalier becomes president in disputed election, and after turmoil his administration becomes dictatorial.


Duvalier has himself declared president for life.


Duvalier dies April 21 and his son, Jean-Claude "Baby Doc," 19, becomes president for life.


A referendum in April finds 99 percent approval of continuing the presidency for life.


After multiple deaths in turmoil, most of them attributed to Ton-Tons Macoutes, Duvalier and his family are flown Feb. 7 on a U.S. military plane to exile in France.


After a violent presidential campaign, election day opens Nov. 29 with the gunning down of 34 voters and confiscation of ballots by alleged remnants of outlawed Ton-Tons Macoutes. Election is called off.


Jean-Bertrand Aristide, a Roman Catholic priest suspended by his Salesian Order, is elected Dec. 16 in an internationally monitored presidential election, winning 67.5 percent of the vote.


Sept. 29: Gen. Raoul Cedras and Police Chief Lt. Gen. Michel Francois take power after sergeants' coup ousts Aristide, who is allowed to flee abroad after the intervention of Cedras. An exodus of boat people begins.

Oct. 8: The Organization of American States calls on members to embargo trade with Haiti and freeze its assets until democracy is restored.


June 23: The United Nations buttresses a partial embargo of Haiti, freezing its assets and cutting off oil deliveries.

July 3: Aristide, Cedras and Francois sign accord reached in talks on Governors Island, N.Y., by which the officers are to step down and Aristide is to be reinstated.

Aug. 27: Oil embargo is suspended.

Oct. 11: The USS Harlan County, carrying U.S. and Canadian trainers on a U.N. mission to reform Haitian security forces, reaches Port-au-Prince but is ordered home when thugs at the dock threaten violence.

Oct. 18: U.N. oil embargo is reinstated. Oil subsequently enters via Dominican Republic.

Oct. 31: Deadline for Governors Island accord passes without fulfillment.


May 6: U.N. Security Council expands embargo into virtual blockade.

June 10: U.S. suspends commercial flights to and from Haiti.

July 11: Haiti orders expulsion of U.N. human rights monitors.

July 29: Aristide, who has equivocated on question of U.S. invasion, calls in a letter to U.N. secretary general for "swift and determined action" to restore democracy.

July 31: U.N. Security Council, 12-0, authorizes use of force in Haiti. Brazil and China abstain.