Five seeded players were eliminated from contention for the Virginia Slims of Washington in qualifying yesterday at the McLean Racquet Club. Only one seeded qualifier made today's quarterfinals.

Peanut Louie of San Francisco, who said she failed to concentrate during the second set of her match with No. 2 Kathleen Horvath, came back in the third set for a 6-2, 3-6, 6-3 victory.

Louie's quarterfinal opponent will be seventh-seeded Vicki Nelson of Wooster, Ohio. Nelson defeated Pam Teeguarden, 6-1, 3-6, 6-1.

Katerina Skronska, a native of Czechoslovokia, easily handled No. 3 Sandy Collins of Odessa, Tex., 6-4, 6-3, and will face Beth Norton, who got by No. 8 Corinne Vanier, 5-7, 6-4, 7-5.

The tensest match of the day, however, was played between two 15-year-olds, Carling Bassett of Toronto and No. 4 Manuela Maleeva of Bulgaria.

Last week in the Orange Bowl World Junior Tennis Championships, Maleeva walked off the court while trailing Bassett, 6-3, 4-3, because of a disputed line call. This time Bassett, who said she "wanted to win this one even more," won, 7-6 (7-3), 7-5. Bassett will face Kim Jones-Shaefer of Alexandria, who beat Heather Ludloff of Foster City, Calif., 6-4, 6-4. Kim Sands of Miami beat No. 6 Camille Benjamin of Bakersfield, Calif., 6-1, 6-4. Sands plays Anna Maria Fernandez, who defeated Jenny Klitch, 6-3, 6-3.

The winner's of today's 10 a.m. matches will advance to the main draw of the tournament, which begins Monday at George Washington University's Smith Center. Because Leslie Allen withdrew from the main draw yesterday, the loser with the highest computer ranking as of Dec. 20 also will advance.