The Washington Capitals, coming off their first National Hockey League playoff appearance, will open their 1983-84 season Oct. 6 in Philadelphia against Patrick Division rival Flyers.

The Capitals open their home schedule two days later against the Stanley Cup champion New York Islanders, one of four Capital Centre appearances by the Islanders.

The Capitals will play four afternoon games (1:35 start), including Monday, Jan. 2, against the New York Rangers, and 24 of the Capitals' 40 home games are to be played on the weekend. WASHINGTON CAPITALS 1983-84 SCHEDULE

Oct. 6, at Philadelphia; Oct. 8, N.Y. Islanders; Oct. 9, at Buffalo; Oct. 13, at N.Y. Rangers; Oct. 14, Pittsburgh; Oct. 16, Quebec; Oct. 19, at Hartford; Oct. 22, Philadelphia; Oct. 25, at Pittsburgh; Oct. 26, at New Jersey; Oct. 29, at Minnesota; Oct. 30, at Winnipeg.

Nov. 2, at Edmonton; Nov. 4, Vancouver; Nov. 6, Detroit; Nov. 9, Edmonton; Nov. 12, N.Y. Rangers; Nov. 13, at Boston; Nov. 16, at N.Y. Rangers; Nov. 18, N.Y. Islanders, Nov. 19, at N.Y. Islanders; Nov. 23, Chicago; Nov. 25, N.Y. Rangers; Nov. 26, at Montreal; Nov. 29, at Quebec.

Dec. 1, New Jersey; Dec. 2, at New Jersey; Dec. 4, Boston; Dec. 7, at N.Y. Rangers; Dec. 8, Calgary; Dec. 10, Montreal; Dec. 15, at Philadelphia; Dec. 17, at Toronto; Dec. 18, Los Angeles; Dec. 22, at N.Y. Islanders; Dec. 23, N.Y. Islanders; Dec. 26, Philadelphia; Dec. 28, Detroit; Dec. 31, at New Jersey.

Jan. 2, N.Y. Rangers, Jan. 5, St. Louis; Jan. 7, Buffalo; Jan. 8, at Philadelphia; Jan. 11, at Los Angeles; Jan. 13, at Vancouver; Jan. 15, at Calgary; Jan. 17, Winnipeg; Jan. 20, Chicago; Jan. 21, at Pittsburgh; Jan. 25, at Buffalo; Jan. 27, Toronto; Jan. 28, at Toronto.

Feb. 2, at New Jersey; Feb. 3, Montreal; Feb. 5, Edmonton; Feb. 8, Calgary; Feb. 11, Philadelphia; Feb. 13, at Minnesota; Feb. 16, at Los Angeles; Feb. 18, at St. Louis; Feb. 19, at Winnipeg; Feb. 22, at Chicago; Feb. 25, at Detroit; Feb. 26, at Hartford; Feb. 28, Vancouver.

March 1, Pittsburgh; March 3, N.Y. Rangers; March 5, at Pittsburgh; March 7, Hartford, March 9, Quebec; March 11, at Boston; March 14, New Jersey; March 17, at N.Y. Islanders; March 18, St. Louis; March 21, Minnesota; March 24, Pittsburgh; March 25, at Pittsburgh; March 28, New Jersey; March 31, N.Y. Islanders.

April 1, at Philadelphia.