Carl Lewis led a 1-2-3 sweep by the United States in the 100 meters at the first World Track and Field Championships today, but Evelyn Ashford, the record holder in the women's 100 meters, was badly injured.

Ashford, 26, was running second behind eventual winner Marlies Gohr of East Germany in the 100 meters when she crumpled to the track near the 60-meter mark.

"It is a torn hamstring muscle, very high in the leg. She should recover in eight to 10 weeks," said Anthony Daly, the U.S. team doctor.

Ashford suffered the worst injury of her career one day after Alberto Juantorena of Cuba tore ligaments in his right foot and incurred a broken bone in the foot after falling just past the finish line of an 800-meter heat.

"I'm very disappointed," Ashford said. "But I'll be back next year. I have a few scores to settle yet." Gohr, who held the world record from 1977 until Ashford broke it last month with a time of 10.79, won in 10.97. Marita Koch of East Germany was second in 11.02 and Diane Williams of the United States won the bronze in 11.06.

Lewis was timed in 10.07 seconds. Calvin Smith, the world record holder at 9.93, was second in 10.21 and Emmit King third in 10.24. It was the first U.S. medal sweep in a major 100-meter event since the 1912 Olympics.

"I am not pleased with my time (in the 100), but it was the best I could do at the Helsinki Stadium," Lewis said. Smith, for his part, said, "I don't feel bad about losing to a runner like Carl. But I have to admit I am, after all, slightly disappointed."

In today's other final, little-known Zozislaw Hoffman of Poland won the triple jump with a personal best of 57 feet 2 inches.

Willie Banks of the United States and Ajayi Agbebaku of Nigeria each cleared 56-4 1/2, but Banks was awarded the silver medal on the basis of a better second jump.

Lewis, attempting to win three gold medals here--he is the overwhelming favorite in the long jump and the anchor on the favored 400-meter relay team--was relatively slow coming out of the blocks in the 100.

He trailed Smith before catching him near the 60-meter mark. Then Lewis accelerated and there was no catching him.

Ashford, who started in Lane 2, veered into Lane 3 when she felt her leg tightening. She threw her hands into the air, fell to the track and rolled back into Lane 2, grabbing the back of her leg.

"It's an old injury," said Daly. "She felt it (again) yesterday (Sunday) in the heats."

Ashford, expected to fly back to Los Angeles later this week, beat Gohr by five-hundredths in winning a qualifying heat Sunday in 11.11.

"But I let Ashford win yesterday," Gohr said at a postrace press conference tonight. "All my races here were tactical. I came to Helsinki to win. I know how to beat Ashford now."

Asked if Ashford's injury took away a little bit of the victory, Gohr said, "That is her problem, not mine, that she could not make it."

Banks led the triple jump until Hoffman, 24, cleared 56-11 1/4 on his fifth attempt. Hoffman, the last jumper in the final, had the victory clinched when he got off his best leap on his final try. It was the eighth-best jump ever.

Edwin Moses of the United States, unbeaten since 1977, led the advance into Tuesday's final of the men's 400-meter intermediate hurdles. The world record holder and 1976 Olympic champion, Moses won his heat in 48.11 seconds.

Svetlana Ulmasova of the Soviet Union, the world record holder in the women's 3,000 meters who was recently hospitalized for 18 days with a severe cold, was a surprise starter and won her semifinal heat in 8:46.65.

Tatyana Kazankina, also of the Soviet Union, and Mary Decker, the American record holder, each clocked 8:44.72 in the other heat.