The Soviet Union won both the men's and women's European Cup track and field titles in Moscow, breaking East Germany's longtime hold on the championships. The East Germans were second in both the men's and women's team standings. The women had been European champions since 1970; the men since 1973.

Soviet pole vaulter Sergei Bubka leaped 19 feet 1/4 inch to take his event, but missed three tries at a world-record height of 19-9. The other Soviet men to win were Yuri Tamm, 272 feet in the hammer throw, and Sergei Usov, 13.56 seconds in the 110-meter hurdles.

Five Soviet women won: Ravilya Agletdinova in the 1,500 meters at 3:58.40, Natalia Lisovskaya in the shot put at 69-2 3/4, Galina Chistyakova in the long jump at 23-10 3/4, Olga Bondarenko in the 10,000 meters at 31:47.38 and the 1,600-meter relay team in 3:18.58.

The British, who finished third, got two firsts, from Thomas McKean in the 800 meters in 1:49.11 and John Herbert in the triple jump, 57-0 3/4. East Germany's Frank Emmelmann ran a national record time of 20.23 seconds in the 200 meters.

Other men's winners yesterday: Patriz Ilg of West German in the 3,000-meter steeplechase, 8:16.14; Imrich Bugar of Czechoslovakia in the discus, 219-2; Alberto Cova of Italy in the 5,000 meters, 14:05.45, and the West German 1,600-meter relay team, 3:00.33. Other women's winners: Guinka Zagorcheva of Bulgaria, 12.77 in the 100-meter hurdles; Marita Koch of East Germany in the 200 meters, 22.02, and Stefka Kostadinova of Bulgaria in the high jump, 6-9 . . .

In Tokyo, Willie Banks of the United States won the men's triple jump at the Nikkan Nighter meet with a leap of 56 feet 11 1/2 inches. It was two feet short of his world record . . .

In Falmouth, Mass., Dave Murphy of England won the 13th Falmouth road race, covering the 10-kilometer (7.1-mile) course in 32 minutes 2 seconds, just shy of the 31:52.3 record set in 1981 by Alberto Salazar.

Joan Benoit, for the sixth time, led the women's field, covering the course in 36:17 and improving by four seconds the Falmouth women's record she set two years ago.