The NCAA convention today overwhelmingly approved drug testing at selected NCAA championships and all football bowl games, beginning this fall. The list of banned substances includes street drugs and so-called performance enhancers, such as anabolic steroids and amphetamines.
Athletes who test positive will lose their eligibility for postseason competition, except in the case of marijuana, for which a second positive test is necessary. Track athletes who test positive in postrace urinalysis will be stripped of their medals.
Later in the day, the convention, in a divided vote, passed a proposal that would allow schools to pay for drug rehabilitation of their athletes.
Thirty-six players will be tested from each team at 18 bowl games. In basketball, the five players who play the most minutes and two others chosen at random will be tested after the second round of the men's and women's tournaments.
All medal winners in track and field will be tested, as well as one or two other competitors chosen at random. Other sports scheduled to be tested in the first year are cross country, swimming, gymnastics and baseball.
The tests will cost an estimated $620,000 in the first year.
Only a handful of schools, most notably Southern Methodist and Stanford, voted against the proposal. It was a far cry from Monday's opening session, which focused on the emotional, controversial issue of using scores on standardized tests as criteria for determining freshman eligibility.
Leaders of the predominantly black schools who vigorously oppose the use of test scores in determining eligibility said they would meet soon to decide what to do next. Options include a legal challenge.
A drug-testing proposal last year was referred to a special committee for further study because it contained ambiguous language and did not include street drugs, such as cocaine, marijuana and heroin.
There were still some objections, but most delegates followed the lead of Paul Gikas -- the University of Michigan's faculty representative and one of the proposal's most vocal opponents a year ago -- in approving it.
As Dick Dull, Maryland's athletic director, said beforehand, "I'll vote for it only on principle. . . . It's still a pretty vague rule."
Lonnie Kliever, SMU's faculty representative, said his school voted against drug testing as "an unnecessary duplication." He said SMU has tested for drugs for two years.
"Every school will have to test (independently of the NCAA)," Kliever said. "No institution is going to risk embarrassment of testing positive at a bowl game. We would be supportive of a mandatory NCAA-administered drug-testing program if the emphasis had been on performance-enhancing drugs such as steroids."
According to an NCAA study, fewer than 100 schools tested for drugs a year ago.
With the issues of drug testing and academics decided and without any major new reforms to be considered, the 80th annual convention, attended by 200 university presidents, finished its business sessions today without the need for the traditional half-day on Wednesday.
In his annual post-convention news conference, NCAA executive director Walter Byers said, "Somebody had to step in and break the chain of use of anabolic steriods in the high school area, and once they get to college . . . in order to get professional contracts."
In one of the more emotional debates of the day, delegates passed a proposal affirming that athletes are responsible for their violations of "major" NCAA rules and will be able to regain their eligibility only in unique cases. An attempt by the Pacific-10 Conference to eliminate the reference to unique cases was defeated.
"You're trying to take the guts out of what we're trying to say to the student-athletes of this country, that for once the NCAA is going to stand up for what we're trying to do," shouted Roy Kramer, athletic director at Vanderbilt.
The delegates agreed with him.
The convention also took a step to cut back on proliferating basketball schedules. It passed a rule that permits a school only one opportunity to play a game that does not count in the 28-game limit, other than a game against a touring foreign team. Thus a school now will have to choose among the Hawaii, Alaska, the preseason NIT tournament or the Hall of Fame game.
Division I-A, by a 63-51 vote, reduced from eight to seven the number of sports required for men and women. A day earlier, it rejected a bid to drop from eight to six sports, the same as the other schools in Division I.
But efforts failed to eliminate the indoor track championships in Divisions I and III, as did a proposal in Division I to count indoor track and outdoor track as one sport.
The NCAA Council sponsored these proposals, pointing out that the three track championships -- indoor, outdoor and cross country -- use one-third of NCAA subsidies in championship events for only one-fifth of the athletes.
Frank Rienzo, athletic director at Georgetown, led the opposition. "There's an illusion we're saving money in one pocket while taking it out of the other one," he said. "We all know what kind of cost-saving that is."
Another lively issue today concerned a proposal to move financial aid from the constitution to the bylaws, thus allowing each division to set the limits for the value of a scholarship. It was referred to committee for another year.
A proposal to grant five years' eligibility also was referred to committee. So was a bid by the Southwest Conference to eliminate boosters from on-campus recruiting, after delegates raised questions about interpretations and enforcement. Boosters already are forbidden from off-campus recruiting.