Seven out of every eight private golf courses in the Washington metropolitan area are racially integrated, but many effectively bar women from playing during prime weekend hours, a Washington Post survey shows.

None of the 47 country clubs that responded to survey questions acknowledged having policies that exclude racial minorities, although six of the clubs said they have no black or Hispanic members. Four clubs -- Burning Tree in Bethesda, Chevy Chase, River Bend in Great Falls and Washington in Arlington -- declined to answer questions posed in telephone interviews about their membership policies.

The six clubs with no black or Hispanic members are Columbia in Chevy Chase, Woodmont in Rockville, Hawthorne in LaPlata, Md., International in Fairfax, Evergreen in Haymarket, Va., and Loudoun in Purcellville, Va.,

The survey was prompted by the controversy over discriminatory membership rules at Shoal Creek Golf Club in Birmingham, where the PGA Championship concluded yesterday. The next four PGA Championships and four of the next five U.S. Opens are scheduled at clubs that have no black members.

"I think the reason Washington might be different is because of the high profile of minorities in the area," said 34-year-old Kevin Jackson, who said he is one of about 20 black members of the 475-member Crofton Country Club. "It is prestigious to have someone like {Joint Chiefs of Staff Chairman} Colin Powell in your club."

While area clubs may be more racially progressive than others around the country, many restrict play by women. Sixteen of the 47 country clubs that responded said they have rules that limit the weekend times women or "spouses" can tee off.

"The presumption is that the women can go play during the week, because they don't work. They are really ignoring the facts of modern life," said Kay Bushel, a Maryland assistant attorney general.

Bushel, who said she gets frequent discrimination complaints from women golfers, is charged with making sure 26 clubs that get "open space" tax abatements in Maryland do not have separate rules for women. The state's high court ruled last year that clubs that get the tax break -- including most of those in Montgomery County -- are subject to Maryland's Equal Rights Amendment, and therefore cannot discriminate.

Clubs that don't qualify for the open space tax abatement, and those in Virginia, are not legally barred from racial or sexual discrimination. There are no private country clubs in the District of Columbia.

"There are more men golfers than ladies, and they play faster. Women actually take more shots to get to the green, and that's what slows down the play," said manager Michael Byrne, explaining why his club, Hidden Creek Country Club in Reston, will not allow women to tee off on weekends before 11 a.m.

Maryland's ban on discrimination is written into its open space law, which allows undeveloped land to be assessed at less than its market value. The designation was given to 26 private country clubs that agreed not to develop their open lands.

One of those clubs was the prestigious Burning Tree Club, the only all-male golf club in the Washington area, and one of a handful of single-sex golf clubs in the country. After more than a decade of legal and legislative battles, Burning Tree has chosen to stay all-male, a decision that is increasing its tax bill this year 14-fold, to $570,000.

Bushel said many clubs maintain their tax breaks and continue to keep women off the course at preferred times on weekends and holidays by declaring that family memberships have one primary member, usually designated by the family as the husband. "Spousal members" have limited privileges, particularly with regard to tee times.

Norbeck Country Club in Rockville recently abolished its restricted playing times for women.

"There are certain issues that have hit the club business over the past few years," said Sondra Wojkowski of Norbeck, one of the few female club general managers in the area. "We have quite a few lawyers in the club and on our board, and I think they are quite aware of the consequences of things like this. We don't have a ladies' day or a men's day anymore, and you could say the reason is that foresight is better than hindsight."

The six area clubs that do not have black or Hispanic members said lack of applications, rather than restrictive policies, was the reason.

Loudoun Golf and Country Club in Purcellville has no black members, but Harold Utz said none have applied in the year he has been one of the club's managers. "If a black came here and submitted an application, I am sure they would be accepted," he said. "But not that many blacks live around here."

Lee Elder, a Washington professional now on the PGA Senior Tour, was a vocal critic of the situation at Shoal Creek, and was disappointed with the resolution -- giving an honorary membership to a black Birmingham businessman -- that allowed the PGA Championship to proceed this week with minimal problems.

"We sold out too easily," he said of the Shoal Creek incident. "We had them in a position where we could have made a difference and they settled too easily."

Elder, a member of the TPC at Avenel course and in 1975 the first black to play in the Masters, said clubs charging high initiation fees do so to keep out minorities.

The Post's survey showed 17 of the responding 47 clubs charge a minimum initiation fee of at least $10,000 for full membership, with Avenel and Woodmont charging an area-high $50,000. In addition, monthly dues range between $100 and $200 at most clubs.

"They think the high price tags will run out the minorities," said Elder. "Let them keep their clubs lily white if they want. I think a lot of this is going to die down soon after this week. We have to continue to apply pressure or it will die, but me, personally, I will never let it die. I will continue to apply pressure to help minorities the best way I can."

For three years, Jackson, a manager for market development for Honeywell, was a member at Patuxent Greens, a semiprivate club in Laurel. He believes he was the only black golfing member at that time, but said he had no bad experiences.

"I had never thought about it until one day when I realized the only other blacks I saw were a few at the pool," he said. "But it was okay because the guys at the club treated me great. I never once had anything racial happen."

He said he changed clubs only because he wanted to play on a more challenging course. He also said he did not know of anyone who had been turned down for membership at any club. "But I also think a lot of people would not attempt to join clubs where they knew they would be turned down," he said.

Legare Van Ness, an official with the 1,000-member National Club Association, said only "a tiny minority" of clubs have explicitly restrictive policies. But, he said, "That's not to say that some don't have attitudes of one kind or another. We have told our members that these policies should be very, very carefully examined right now."

Some jurisdictions, he said, are denying or withdrawing liquor licenses and tax breaks from private clubs deemed to be discriminatory. In some cases, members have lost the right to deduct business lunches taken at such clubs, he said.

The business informally transacted at clubs is what concerns black golfers such as Al Green, 50, of Crownsville, a former club professional and member of the Middle Atlantic PGA.

"The aspect of being a member at a private golf club isn't the playing," he said. "It is the things that go on behind closed doors. There is so much business being transacted at these clubs and that is why it is important to be members. You have business executives making multi-million dollar deals at the clubs and {nonmembers} only find out about them when it is too late."

But Van Ness disagreed. "It's not like the floor of the New York Stock Exchange," he said. Private clubs are "more of a retreat from business" than a venue for deals.

Green said that as long as most clubs require new members be sponsored by a number of current members, the chances of blacks making significant inroads at clubs will be minimal. "Any time you have to be recommended by a member, it is not feasible to believe things will change," said Green.

The Post's survey showed that the longest waiting list was for Columbia Country Club in Chevy Chase, which estimated a prospective member would have to wait eight years for an opportunity to be considered. All clubs that had waiting lists said they follow the lists in strict order.

Special correspondents Frank Hughes, Scott Willoughby and Eric Karabell contributed to this report.

..............................Initiation...No. of...Black/...Women

MARYLAND..............Location...Fee.....Members...Hisp...Restric.

Andrews AFB...........Andrews.....None.....4,000.....Yes.....No

Argyle..........Silver Spring.....$7,500.....465.....Yes.....No

Avenel................Potomac.....$12,000-

..................................$50,000.....850.....Yes.....No

Bay Hills.............Arnold......$500........600.....Yes.....No

Bethesda.............Bethesda.....$23,000.....720.....Yes.....No

Breton Bay........Leonardtown.....$300........268.....Yes.....No

Bretton Woods......Germantown.....N/A.......4,000.....Yes.....No

Brooke Manor............Olney.....None........475.....Yes.....No

Burning Tree.........Bethesda.....Refused to respond

Chevy Chase.......Chevy Chase.....Refused to respond

Chartwell........Severna Park.....$12,500.....675.....Yes.....No

Columbia..........Chevy Chase.....$22,000...1,635......No.....No

Congressional.........Potomac.....$25,000...2,000+....Yes.....No

Crofton...............Crofton.....$3,000......475.....Yes.....No

Georgetown Prep.....Rockville.....$125........600.....Yes.....No

Germantown.........Germantown.....$1,000......460.....Yes.....No

Hawthorne............La Plata.....$2,300......330......No.....No

Indian Spring.....Silver Spring...$6,000....1,186.....Yes.....No

Kenwood...........Chevy Chase.....$17,500...2,000.....Yes.....No

Lakewood............Rockville.....$15,000.....806.....Yes.....No

Leisure World...........Olney.....None........375.....Yes.....No

Manor...............Rockville.....$15,000...1,083.....Yes.....No

Marlboro.......Upper Marlboro.....$3,500......576.....Yes.....No

U. of Maryland...College Park.....None........260.....Yes.....No

Montgomery.......Laytonsville.....N/A.........500.....Yes.....No

Montgomery Village Gaithersburg...$4,000......500.....Yes.....No

Naval Academy.......Annapolis.....$5,000 .....561.....Yes.....No

Naval Ordnance....Indian Head.....None........140.....Yes.....No

Norbeck.............Rockville.....$10,000.....510.....Yes.....No

Patuxent Greens........Laurel.....$1,000......454.....Yes.....No

Port America.......Tantallon......N/A.........400.....Yes.....No

Prince Georges...Mitchellville....$9,000......543.....Yes.....No

Robin Dale.........Brandywine.....None........400.....Yes.....No

Woodmont............Rockville.....$50,000...1,100......No.....No

...............................Initiation...No. of...Black/...Wom.

VIRGINIA..............Location...Fee.....Members...Hisp...Restric.

Aquia Harbor...........Stafford.....None.....8,000.....Yes.....No

Army-Navy.............Arlington.....N/A......7,500.....Yes.....No

Belle Haven..........Alexandria.....$20,000....540.....Yes.....No

Chantilly National....Chantilly.....$15,000....600.....Yes.....No

Evergreen.............Haymarket.....$7,500.....400......No.....No

Fairfax.................Fairfax.....$17,500....872.....Yes.....No

Fort Belvoir.......Fort Belvoir.....N/A......1,200.....Yes.....No

Hidden Creek.............Reston.....$12,500....498.....Yes.....Yes

International...........Fairfax.....$15,000....630......No.....Yes

Loudoun............Purcellville.....$5,000.....400......No.....No

Medal of Honor.........Quantico.....N/A........350.....Yes.....No

Montclair..............Dumfries.....$1,655...1,000+....Yes.....No

River Bend..........Great Falls.....Refused to respond

Springfield.........Springfield.....$12,500....460.....Yes.....No

Washington............Arlington.....Refused to respond

Westwood.................Vienna.....$20,000.....540.....Yes.....Yes

Woodlawn.............Alexandria.....$10,000.....435.....Yes.....No

Family membership allows one unrestricted full member; spouses have limited privileges.

Men have course restrictions on certain days, women on others.

No fee for military members. Fee applies only to 180 civilian members.