My topic today is something people in the Washington area rarely acknowledge. The lawyers, educators, government officials, consultants, journalists and other analytical types so numerous here prefer to fix what’s wrong---how about those Redskins?---rather than celebrate what’s right.
There are many ways to measure school success. The College Board numbers are impressive because they show the academic level reached by our students at the end of the entire kindergarten through 12th grade process. Maryland ranked first in the nation and Virginia third in the percentage of graduating seniors in 2011 who scored a passing grade on an AP test during high school.
The numbers would look even better if they included International Baccalaureate and Advanced International Certificate of Education test results. Like AP, those programs give high school students courses and exams similar to what they would receive their first year of college. The AP, IB and AICE exams are much longer than high school course finals. They are heavy with essay questions. They are written and scored by outside experts insulated from appeals to give Tommy a good grade so he can graduate even though he devoted last semester to video games.
The AP data also show how much most of our schools have improved in just a decade. In Maryland, 27.9 percent of seniors graduating in 2011 had a passing score on an AP test, double the 2001 rate of 14.8 percent. Virginia’s percentage of graduating seniors with a passing score went from 16.5 in 2001 to 25.6 in 2011. The national average in that period went from 10.8 to 18.1 percent.
That isn’t good enough, of course. Since about 70 percent of seniors go to college, the report shows that most of them do so without a passing AP score. Studies have shown that students who do well on AP do better in college than those who don’t take AP. Yet less than half of graduating seniors in Maryland or Virginia are steered into courses and tests like AP, IB or AICE that give them a useful taste of what college will be like.
Some critics say that too many unready students are pushed into AP courses here. The report’s data suggest the opposite. One heart-breaking graph looks just at students whose standardized test scores indicate readiness for a college-level challenge in certain subjects. The report shows that most of them were not given a chance to take AP courses in those subjects.
Nearly 80 percent of African Americans and 70 percent of Hispanics were either left out of an AP subject for which they had potential or attended a school that did not offer the course. Among whites, 62 percent were left out and among Asians, 42 percent.
That explains in part why the D.C. schools do so poorly. Nationally the number of graduates succeeding on AP has grown, from 277,507 with passing scores in 2001 to 540,619 in 2011. The number of successful graduates in D.C. has also risen in those ten years, from 190 to 276. But only 6.6 of graduating D.C. public school seniors in 2011 passed an AP test. Among states, those that ranked lowest on that measure were Louisiana (5.6 percent) and Mississippi (4.5 percent.)
Joining Maryland and Virginia at the top of the list are other states that have relatively high incomes, which correlates with test scores, but also focus on getting students into AP, IB and AICE no matter how much money their parents made. New York is second nationally, Massachusetts fourth and Connecticut fifth.
Many other states have also improved on this measure. Still, twice as many kids are ready for AP as the number who actually get to take the courses. Does that make sense?