(Jacquelyn Martin/AP)

The second ominous sign came from health technology company athenahealth, which recently found that vaccines can often be money losers for doctors. The company combed through what insurers pay 1,400 doctors for administering eight common vaccines. They found that, in nearly half the cases, the reimbursement wasn’t enough to cover the direct costs (the actual vaccine) and indirect costs (like shipping and refrigeration) of providing the vaccination. For doctors, the case against vaccinations could be less about scare tactics and more about simple math: 47 percent of the vaccinations they give are, according to this study, money losers.