States have increased tobacco taxes about five times as often as they raised alcohol taxes between the 2000 to 2015 fiscal years.

Tobacco taxes over that period were hiked 111 times and cut just four times. Alcohol taxes, on the other hand, were raised 23 times and cut eight times, according to the National Association of State Budget Officers. All told, 45 states have bumped up tobacco taxes at least once, while only 16 states have done the same to alcohol taxes.

“Perhaps not surprisingly, the years during or immediately following a recession saw the largest number of excise tax increases as states have faced shortfalls,” NASBO’s Brian Sigritz wrote. “For example, 19 states increased taxes on tobacco products in fiscal 2003, 15 states in fiscal 2004, and 16 states in fiscal 2010.” The two most active years for tobacco tax hikes were 2003 and 2010, both in the aftermath of economic downturns.

Connecticut, New York, Rhode Island and Vermont each increased tobacco taxes six times — the most of all states — since the 2000 fiscal year. Tobacco taxes were cut twice in Oregon and once each in Arkansas and Virginia over that same period, though all three states also increased tobacco taxes at some point as well, though Sigritz says the changes were largely technical.

Policymakers have turned to tobacco taxes as a new source of revenue when existing sources have underwhelmed. And often they’ve proposed using the additional revenue on education. President Obama suggested an increase in his 2013 State of the Union to pay for universal pre-kindergarten education. In 2006, Arizonans approved an 80 cent increase in taxes per pack of cigarettes to fund early childhood education, which claimed $130 million in revenues during the 2014 fiscal year.

Current efforts to raise tobacco taxes are also underway. Local business leaders are pushing for Missouri to raise its tobacco taxes from 17 cents per pack of cigarettes — the lowest such tax in the nation — to as much as 67 cents per pack. A recent proposal to tax electronic cigarettes in New Jersey would also raise the traditional tobacco tax and pressure is building on California to impose a $2-per-pack tax.

Per-pack taxes are currently highest in New York, according to the Tax Foundation, which also estimates that more than half the cigarettes consumed there are smuggled in from out of state.