Author or editor of 36 books, many on Lincoln, and chairman of the Abraham Lincoln Bicentennial Foundation

That may be precisely why he did what he did when he did it. Lincoln subsequently earned much credit in history by calling Congress back into session on July 4, at which time he offered a majestic explanation of his actions to confront what he called “a People’s contest.” Of course, the House and Senate obligingly ratified his every move. But certainly he might have ordered the legislators back to Washington earlier had he really wanted their approval (much less their debate) before he had adequately deployed his military response. Shades of Libya, 2011!

No President before or since ever had a more liberal and elastic view of the so-called “war power.” But no other President ever confronted such a crisis, either. Lincoln may not have had the right to do all he did after Sumter, but he exercised that right anyway, and probably saved Washington and the Union by doing so.