View Photo Gallery: Pro athletes on what motivates their best performance.

Michael Phelps, who has said this will be his last Olympics, may have a long career ahead of him touting healthy cereals or promoting energy drinks.

But for many athletes in London, this may be their only shot at Olympic gold before they’re forced to move on to other jobs and careers far outside the world of swimming pools, gymnasiums and running tracks. When they do, one might expect their many skills and qualities—their determination, their persistence, their extraordinary work ethics, their competitive drive—to make them uniquely successful in less Olympian pursuits.

A new study from the University of Queensland in Australia, however, says that’s not always the case. The research team, which was selected by the International Olympics Council’s (IOC’s) Olympic Studies Centre Research Grant Program, interviewed former Olympic athletes and found that many reported experiencing disorientation, depression and self-doubt as they transitioned into their next careers.

While qualities like organization and persistence proved to be useful in the interviewees’ post-Olympic careers, other common attributes of high-level athletes, such as submissiveness, perfectionism and competitiveness were actually seen as problematic, the researchers found. The study’s sample was extremely small—just eight athletes were interviewed—but serves as a reminder of how difficult the transition can be for seemingly invincible athletes once the Games are over.

Still, one skill the Olympics does teach athletes that might stick with them is how to live with coming in second. Or better yet, third. Stanford management professor Bob Sutton wrote earlier this week on his excellent Work Matters blog about a phenomenon we’ve all probably witnessed in watching the Olympics over the past few days. The gold medal winners obviously appear elated. But while silver medalists can appear dejected, bronze medalists often look almost as happy as if they won the gold.

US gymnast Danell Leyva performs on the rings during the London Olympic Games on August 1, 2012. (BEN STANSALL/AFP/GETTY IMAGES)

Leaders in competitive fields are always comparing themselves to those who came in first, when they might enjoy their success a little more if they learned to compare themselves to those who didn’t come close to winning at all. “To put perhaps too fine a point on it,” Sutton writes, “silver medalists see themselves as the first loser, while bronze medalists see themselves as the last winner.”

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