Job growth does not historically come from existing small businesses, but rather young start-ups, says Brookings scholar Robert Litan. But for a myriad of reasons, the rate of American start-ups are at an all-time low. Litan argues that the first thing policymakers could do to boost entrepreneurship and start-ups is to change American immigration policies.

“We need to attract and retain high skilled immigrants who come here to study. A lot of people have talked about giving them green cards as soon as they graduate,” says Litan.